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I am using Overleaf, and when I copied and pasted bibliography from a different project into a new one, I am getting errors and cannot figure out what's wrong. The errors I am getting are all Missing } inserted., Missing $ inserted. or Extra }, or forgotten $. They refer to some lines in the output.bbl file.

My attempt so far: I manually went through process of elimination and narrowed it down to 4 problematic entries. I checked for underscores _ but they are all in the DOI/URL fields, and I tried checking for missing braces }. When I add this new bibliography, I get the errors. I tried adding each of these one by one and they all individually cause errors. I noticed that all of these are @incollection entries.

@incollection{old-nsf-proposal-1,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_29},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_29},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  pages = {307--318},
  author = {Nicoletta Adamo-Villani and Ronnie B. Wilbur},
  title = {{ASL}-Pro: American Sign Language Animation with Prosodic Elements},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to Interaction}
}

@incollection{old-nsf-proposal-44,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-31534-3_32},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31534-3_32},
  year = {2012},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  pages = {205--212},
  author = {Eleni Efthimiou and Stavroula-Evita Fotinea and Thomas Hanke and John Glauert and Richard Bowden and Annelies Braffort and Christophe Collet and Petros Maragos and Fran{\c{c}}ois Lefebvre-Albaret},
  title = {The Dicta-Sign Wiki: Enabling Web Communication for the Deaf},
  booktitle = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science}
}

@incollection{old-nsf-proposal-45,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-02707-9_3},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02707-9_3},
  year = {2009},
  publisher = {Springer Berlin Heidelberg},
  pages = {21--30},
  author = {Eleni Efthimiou and Stavroula-Evita Fotinea and Christian Vogler and Thomas Hanke and John Glauert and Richard Bowden and Annelies Braffort and Christophe Collet and Petros Maragos and J{\'{e}}r{\'{e}}mie Segouat},
  title = {Sign Language Recognition,  Generation,  and Modelling: A Research Effort with Applications in Deaf Communication},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Addressing Diversity}
}

@incollection{old-nsf-proposal-46,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_33},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_33},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  pages = {351--361},
  author = {Eleni Efthimiou and Stavroula-Evita Fotinea and Theodore Goulas and Panos Kakoulidis},
  title = {User Friendly Interfaces for Sign Retrieval and Sign Synthesis},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to Interaction}
}

I checked the .bst file that I have, searched for inproceedings and I found this:

FUNCTION { incollection }
{
  output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output       % added
  output.year.check              % added
  new.block
  format.articletitle "title" output.check
  new.block
  crossref missing$
    { format.in.ed.booktitle "booktitle" output.check
      new.sentence                % jtb: start a new sentence for series/volume
      format.bvolume output
      format.number.series output
      new.sentence
      publisher "publisher" output.check
      address "address" output.check      % jtb: require address
      format.bookpages output
      format.chapter.pages output % gnp - was special.output.nonnull
                                  % left out comma before page numbers
                                  % jtb: moved from before publisher
    }
    {
      format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
      format.chapter.pages output
    }
  if$
  fin.block
  output.issue.doi.coden.isxn.lccn.url.note
  fin.entry
}

FUNCTION { inproceedings }
{
  output.bibitem
  format.authors "author" output.check
  author format.key output            % added
  output.year.check                   % added
  new.block
  format.articletitle "title" output.check
  howpublished output.dot.space
  crossref missing$
    {
      journal missing$          % jtb: proceedings appearing in journals
        { format.in.emphasize.booktitle "booktitle"  output.check.dot.space
          format.series output.removenospace
          format.editors.fml output % BV 2011/09/27 Moved dot to comma
          format.bvolume.noseries output
          new.sentence
          organization output
          publisher "publisher" output.check % jtb: require publisher (?)
          address "address" output.check  % jtb: require address
          format.bookpages output
        }
        {
           format.in.booktitle format.city "booktitle" output.check
           format.editors.fml output
           new.sentence
           format.journal.volume.number.day.month.year output
        }
      if$
      format.articleno output
      format.pages.check.without.articleno output
    }
    {
      format.incoll.inproc.crossref output.nonnull
      format.articleno output
      format.pages.check.without.articleno output
    }
  if$
  format.articleno.numpages output
  fin.block
  output.issue.doi.coden.isxn.lccn.url.note
  fin.entry
}

EDIT: added MWE to reproduce error:

SIGCHI-Reference-Format.bst : https://controlc.com/6d1ed4fb

.tex file:

\begin{filecontents*}{bib.bib}
@incollection{old-nsf-proposal-1,
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_29},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20681-3_29},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  pages = {307--318},
  author = {Nicoletta Adamo-Villani and Ronnie B. Wilbur},
  title = {{ASL}-Pro: American Sign Language Animation with Prosodic Elements},
  booktitle = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to Interaction}
}
\end{filecontents*}


\documentclass[letterpaper, 11pt, oneside, openright, draft]{book}

\usepackage{url}

% https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/3802/how-to-get-doi-links-in-bibliography#3803
% https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/3033/forcing-linebreaks-in-url
\PassOptionsToPackage{hyphens}{url}\usepackage[linktoc=all, pagebackref=true]{hyperref}
\hypersetup{%
  pdfdisplaydoctitle=true, % For Accessibility
  pdfstartview={FitH}, % https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/3450/make-pdf-open-in-fill-window-mode-with-hyperref/7251
  colorlinks=true,
  pdflang={en},
  extension=pdf,
  plainpages=false,
  pdfpagelayout=SinglePage,
  bookmarksnumbered,
  breaklinks=true,
  hypertexnames=true,
  citecolor=blue, % TODO change to black for final version (this makes it easy to check for unfinished links
  filecolor=blue, % TODO change to black for final version (this makes it easy to check for unfinished links
  linkcolor=blue, % TODO change to black for final version (this makes it easy to check for unfinished links
  urlcolor=blue,
  final % to avoid draft mode for hyperref
}

\usepackage{doi} % this must be loaded AFTER hyperref!

\begin{document}

Testing... Citing \cite{old-nsf-proposal-1}.

\bibliographystyle{SIGCHI-Reference-Format}
\bibliography{bib}

\end{document}
9
  • Most BibTeX styles that support a doi or url field can interface with the url or hyperref packages in such a way that (normally unsafe) characters like _, $ and % work as expected without escaping. It is possible that this only works if you load \usepackage{hyperref} in your preamble as the style may fall back to a more primitive command otherwise. But it is also possible that your style does something else entirely. The code snippet of the .bst file shown here is not really helpful to investigate this. ...
    – moewe
    Feb 15 at 7:07
  • ... Please prepare a complete example document (a .tex file citing a problematic entry) that reproduces the problem with as little code as possible. If the .bst file is not available on CTAN, please share a link so we can get hold of the file as well.
    – moewe
    Feb 15 at 7:08
  • you hav not shown the relevant code, the important thing is how it is formatting url fieldsm if it just makes them normal text the_ will give errors. You could show the generated bbl file. Feb 15 at 12:37
  • @DavidCarlisle would only the .bbl file "header" and the \bibitem of the problematic entry suffice? I am not experienced with bibliography styles and behind-the-scenes stuff..
    – Abraham
    Feb 15 at 16:31
  • 1
    I googled the file name and at first found github.com/seocam/cscw-spb/blob/master/… (which does not appear official), then I omitted the .bst and found chi2020.acm.org/authors/chi-proceedings-format where you can download a template including a SIGCHI-Reference-Format.bst. Unless you have a very good reason to use this specific file, I'd probably stick to a more standard style.
    – moewe
    Feb 15 at 19:38

1 Answer 1

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Thanks to the commenters!

What I ended up doing: I could not find a good source for the SIGCHI-Reference-Format.bst file online, so I changed it to the ACM-Reference-Format.bst from CTAN here.

For reference, I have created a diffchecker link to compare the version of SIGCHI-Reference-Format.bst I had (18 January 2012) with the current version of the ACM-Reference-Format.bst (at time of writing, 14 June 2017): https://www.diffchecker.com/m8087Izb

To use the ACM-Reference-Format.bst file, I had to add \usepackage{natbib} to my preamble. I also added \setcitestyle{numbers,square} to use numbers enclosed in square brackets.

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