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enter image description here

The above picture is what I'm attempting to replicate. Below is what I've managed to recreate so far. How would I reduce the vertical space on the Consonants, Vowels, Stops rows and connect the rows Semi vowel through Pure Nasal to the alphabet at the bottom?

\begin{table}[]
  \centering
  % \caption{My caption}
  % \label{my-label}
  \resizebox{\textwidth}{!}{%
    \renewcommand{\arraystretch}{1.2}% Tighter
    \begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}
      \hline
      \multirow{3}{*}{Place of Articulation} & \multicolumn{11}{c|}{Manner of Articulation} \\ \cline{2-12}
                                             & \multicolumn{7}{c|}{Consonants} & \multicolumn{3}{c|}{Vowels} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Pure}\hbox{\strut Nasal}} \\ \cline{2-11}

                                             & \multicolumn{5}{c|}{Stops} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Semi}\hbox{\strut vowel}\hbox{\strut (voiced)}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Sibilant}\hbox{\strut (voiceless)}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut S}\hbox{\strut h}\hbox{\strut o}\hbox{\strut r}\hbox{\strut t}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut L}\hbox{\strut o}\hbox{\strut n}\hbox{\strut g}} & Compound \\ \cline{2-6}

                                             & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Voiceless}\hbox{\strut non-}\hbox{\strut aspirate}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Voiceless}\hbox{\strut aspirate}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Voiced}\hbox{\strut non-}\hbox{\strut aspirate}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Voiced}\hbox{\strut aspirate}} & \vtop{\hbox{\strut Voiced}\hbox{\strut nasal}} \\ \hline

      Gutturals  & k & kh & g & gh & ṅ & h          &   & a & ā & e &     \\ \cline{1-8} \cline{9-11}
      Palatals   & c & ch & j & jh & ñ & y          &   & i & ī &   &     \\ \cline{1-8} \cline{9-10}
      Cerebrals  & ṭ & ṭh & ḍ & ḍh & ṇ & r / l / ḷh &   &   &   &   & m   \\ \cline{1-8}
      Dentals    & t & th & d & dh & n & l          & s &   &   &   &     \\ \cline{1-11}
      Labials    & p & ph & b & bh & m & v          &   & u & ū & o &     \\ \hline
    \end{tabular}}
\end{table}

3
  • 1
    Welcome to TeX.SE.
    – Mico
    Commented Mar 1, 2022 at 21:40
  • Please advise if it's important to render the cell contents (except the header cell contents) in italics by default.
    – Mico
    Commented Mar 1, 2022 at 22:17
  • Not of particular importance. My gratitude for the thorough answer provided. Commented Mar 4, 2022 at 18:41

2 Answers 2

2

I recommend the tabularray package for formatting your table. It provides the \SetCell[r=<nrows>,c=<ncols>] command, which makes creating multirow and multicolumn cells very easy. The first table is very close to what you asked for. The second one is a formatting suggestion of myself. I used the booktabs commands (loaded with \UseTblrLibray{booktabs}) for the horizontal lines and removed all vertical lines since they don't improve the readability. I also added em-dashes for empty entries to give the table a bit for structure.

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage[margin=2.4cm]{geometry}
\usepackage{rotating}
\usepackage{makecell}
\settowidth\rotheadsize{{\small Compound}}
\newcommand{\NA}{---}

\usepackage{tabularray}
\UseTblrLibrary{booktabs}

\begin{document}
    
\begin{table}[ht]
    \centering
    \begin{tblr}{
            colspec={l *{11}{c}},
            hlines, vlines,
            row{1-5}={font=\small},
        }
        \SetCell[r=5]{c,h} {Place of \\ Articulation} & \SetCell[c=11]{c} Manner of Articulation \\
        & \SetCell[c=7]{c} Consonants &&&&&&& \SetCell[c=3]{c} Vowels &&& \SetCell[r=4]{c,h} {Pure \\ Nasal} \\
        & \SetCell[c=5]{c} Stops &&&&
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c,h} {Semi \\ vowel \\ (voiced)}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c,h} {Sibilant \\ (voiceless)}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Short}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Long}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Compound} & \\
        & \SetCell[c=2]{c} Voiceless && \SetCell[c=3]{c} Voiced \\
        & {non- \\ aspirate} & aspirate & {non- \\ aspirate} & aspirate & nasal \\
        Gutturals  & k & kh & g & gh & ṅ & h  &   & a & ā & e & \\
        Palatals   & c & ch & j & jh & ñ & y  &   & i & ī & \SetCell[r=3]{}  & \\
        Cerebrals  & ṭ & ṭh & ḍ & ḍh & ṇ & r\,/\,l\,/\,ḷh & & \SetCell[r=2]{} & \SetCell[r=2]{} & & m \\
        Dentals    & t & th & d & dh & n & l  & s &   &   &   &     \\
        Labials    & p & ph & b & bh & m & v  &   & u & ū & o &     \\
    \end{tblr}
\end{table}

\begin{table}[ht]
    \centering
    \begin{tblr}{
            colspec={@{} l *{11}{c} @{}},
            row{1-5}={font=\small},
        }
        \toprule
        \SetCell[r=5]{h} {Place of \\ Articulation} & \SetCell[c=11]{c} Manner of Articulation \\
        \cmidrule[lr]{2-Z}
        & \SetCell[c=7]{c} Consonants &&&&&&& \SetCell[c=3]{c} Vowels &&& \SetCell[r=4]{h} {Pure \\ Nasal} \\
        \cmidrule[lr]{2-8} \cmidrule[lr]{9-11}
        & \SetCell[c=5]{c} Stops &&&&
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c,h} {Semi \\ vowel \\ (voiced)}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c,h} {Sibilant \\ (voiceless)}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Short}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Long}
        & \SetCell[r=3]{c} \rotcell{Compound} & \\
        \cmidrule[lr]{2-6}
        & \SetCell[c=2]{c} Voiceless && \SetCell[c=3]{c} Voiced \\
        \cmidrule[lr]{2-3} \cmidrule[lr]{4-6}
        & {non- \\ aspirate} & aspirate & {non- \\ aspirate} & aspirate & nasal \\
        \midrule
        Gutturals  & k & kh & g & gh & ṅ & h & \NA & a & ā & e & \NA \\
        Palatals   & c & ch & j & jh & ñ & y & \NA & i & ī & \NA & \NA \\
        Cerebrals  & ṭ & ṭh & ḍ & ḍh & ṇ & r\,/\,l\,/\,ḷh & \NA & \NA & \NA & \NA & m \\
        Dentals    & t & th & d & dh & n & l  & s & \NA & \NA & \NA & \NA \\
        Labials    & p & ph & b & bh & m & v  & \NA & u & ū & o & \NA \\
        \bottomrule
    \end{tblr}
\end{table}

\end{document}

table output

1

The following may be reasonably close to what you're looking for.

enter image description here

\documentclass{article} % or some other suitable document class
\usepackage{geometry} % set page and text block parameters appropriately
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{graphicx} % for \rotatebox macro
\usepackage{amsmath}  % for \smash[b] macro
\usepackage{array}    % for \extrarowheight macro
\usepackage{multirow} % for \multirow macro
\newcommand\mytab[1]{\smash[b]{\begin{tabular}[t]{@{}c@{}} #1 \end{tabular}}}
\newcommand\mytabx[1]{\begin{tabular}[t]{@{}c@{}} #1 \end{tabular}}

\begin{document}
\begin{table}[ht]
\setlength\tabcolsep{3.75pt} % default value: 6pt
\setlength\extrarowheight{2pt}
\centering
\begin{tabular}{ | l | *{11}{c|} }
      \hline
      \mytab{Place of\\Articulation} 
      & \multicolumn{11}{c|}{Manner of Articulation} \\ 
      \cline{2-12}
      & \multicolumn{7}{c|}{Consonants} 
      & \multicolumn{3}{c|}{Vowels} 
      & \mytab{Pure\\Nasal} \\ 
      \cline{2-11}
      & \multicolumn{5}{c|}{Stops} 
      & \mytab{Semi\\vowel\\(voiced)} 
      & \mytab{Sibilant\\(voice-\\less)} 
      & \smash{\rotatebox[origin=tr]{90}{Short}}
      & \smash{\rotatebox[origin=tr]{90}{Long}}
      & \smash{\rotatebox[origin=tr]{90}{Compound}} & \\ 
      \cline{2-6}
      & \multicolumn{2}{c|}{Voiceless} 
      & \multicolumn{3}{c|}{Voiced} & & & & & & \\
      \cline{2-6}
      & \mytabx{non-\\aspirate} 
      & aspirate 
      & \mytabx{non-\\aspirate} 
      & aspirate 
      & nasal & & & & & & \\ 
      \hline
      Gutturals  & k & kh & g & gh & ṅ & h  &   & a & ā & e &     \\
      \cline{1-8} \cline{9-11}
      Palatals   & c & ch & j & jh & ñ & y  &   & i & ī &   &     \\
      \cline{1-8} \cline{9-10}
      Cerebrals  & ṭ & ṭh & ḍ & ḍh & ṇ & r\,/\,l\,/\,ḷh & & & & & m \\
      \cline{1-8}
      Dentals    & t & th & d & dh & n & l  & s &   &   &   &     \\
      \cline{1-11}
      Labials    & p & ph & b & bh & m & v  &   & u & ū & o &     \\
      \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\end{document}

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