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I have a huge problem, I don't know what happened but suddenly Greek characters are not shown in the PDF file after the compilation! I even did copy-paste in old TeX codes that worked fine and now Greek characters are not shown in the internal PDF viewer and the PDF file! I removed and reinstalled TeX Live and TeXstudio, but it did not help. Do you have any idea why I started facing this problem? I use Ubuntu, if this matters.

\documentclass{article}

\usepackage{ucs}
\usepackage[utf8x]{inputenc}
\usepackage[greek,english]{babel}
\newcommand{\en}{\selectlanguage{english}}
\newcommand{\gr}{\selectlanguage{greek}}

\begin{document}
    
    \en
    Α line of text in English.
    
    \gr
    Μια γραμμή κειμένου στα Ελληνικά.
    
\end{document}
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    Make a small, complete example demonstrating your problem and show it together with the log-file. Mar 11, 2022 at 19:50
  • Can I put a screenshot here?
    – spil
    Mar 11, 2022 at 19:53
  • inputenc package ignored with utf8 based engines.
    – spil
    Mar 11, 2022 at 19:54
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    No a screenshot is useless. Show your code and the log-file. Mar 11, 2022 at 19:57
  • 1
    if you are not getting the right output there is presumably something wrong with your input but if you give no hints then no one can help, show a small complete document that has the problem in a code block in your question ({} button in the editor) Mar 11, 2022 at 19:57

2 Answers 2

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The file from the question can be compiled with pdflatex. Compiling with lualatex or xelatex do not show errors, but the Greek glyphs are missing.

The error message with pdflatex is:

! LaTeX Error: Command \textAlpha unavailable in encoding OT1.

The reason is that the Α in the English text is U+0391 (GREEK CAPITAL LETTER ALPHA). It should be replaced by an ASCII letter A U+0041 (LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A).

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  • thanks:-)...... Mar 11, 2022 at 20:50
  • One way to avoid this is to add \usepackage{textalpha}, then you don't need to declare newcommands for switching between greek and english and also the ASCII interpretation is done automatically.
    – eliasf
    Mar 11, 2022 at 21:59
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    @eliasf Adding \usepackage{textalpha} to the example removes the error message, but the Greek capital letter alpha remains in the English text section. Even if the glyphs look the same, it causes subtle trouble, e.g., searching for the ASCII text "A line" in the generated PDF output file will not find "Α line" with a Greek capital letter. Mar 12, 2022 at 0:09
  • Agreed, I never implied to leave the greek A inside the english text, nor was I just trying to get rid of the error message, I merely pointed out a way to seamlessly write greek and english text without declaring the language.
    – eliasf
    Mar 12, 2022 at 13:26
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If Greek characters "suddenly" dissapear, without change to the source file, the most likely cause is compiling with xelatex or lualatex instead of pdflatex.

The default font with Xe/LuaTeX is "Latin Modern" which, in line with its name, supports the Latin script but not Greek. You will have to set up a different font for the complete document with "fontspec" or for the Greek text parts with "babel" or "polyglossia". The Babel guide has a short section on "Selecting fonts".

Unfortunately, missing characters are not reported on the console. However, there are warnings like

Missing character: There is no ι (U+03B9) in font [lmroman10-regular]:+tlig;!
Missing character: There is no α (U+03B1) in font [lmroman10-regular]:+tlig;!
Missing character: There is no γ (U+03B3) in font [lmroman10-regular]:+tlig;!

in the .log file.

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