I have the following overleaf project structure:


My main.tex file contains the following:



\usepackage{booktabs} % For formal tables
\usepackage{soul} % for highlights

\def\BibTeX{{\rm B\kern-.05em{\sc i\kern-.025em b}\kern-.08em


\title{Manuscript Title}





% Reference list


I have only 2 reference list in References/references.bib

  title={AMUSE: Empowering users for cost-aware offloading with throughput-delay tradeoffs},
  author={Im, Youngbin and Joe-Wong, Carlee and Ha, Sangtae and Sen, Soumya and Chiang, Mung and others},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing},

  title={Cooperative data offload in opportunistic networks: From mobile devices to infrastructure},
  author={Lu, Zongqing and Sun, Xiao and La Porta, Thomas},
  journal={IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking},

Nothing in the Introduction.tex file but the heading, only the following in the Related_Work.tex:

\section{Related WOrk}

We refer to the methods in \cite{b1} and \cite{b2}

But the output isn't showing the citations.


You have cited something which is not included in your bibliography.
Citation 'b1' on page 1 undefined on input line 6

enter image description here

  • There's nothing wrong with your code, as far as I can tell, though it requires running pdflatex, then bibtex, then pdflatex two more times to get the right result. I'm not an overleaf user, so I don't know how it works, but are you sure it's doing all of that? If you only run pdflatex once without running the other commands, you'll get the result you show.
    – frabjous
    Commented Mar 26, 2022 at 18:11
  • @frabjous Overleaf does automatic compilation using latexmk so bibliography processing works seamlessly.
    – Alan Munn
    Commented Mar 27, 2022 at 20:48
  • 1
    Try putting your .bib file in the root folder of your project and see if that solves the problem. The \bibliography command does not take a path as an argument, it takes the name of a .bib file only.
    – Alan Munn
    Commented Mar 27, 2022 at 20:49
  • 1
    @AlanMunn I have done this, and changed \bibliography{References/references} to \bibliography{references}, still the same effect.
    – arilwan
    Commented Mar 27, 2022 at 21:42
  • 1
    (I'm on support staff at Overleaf.) I don't see this problem with a project I created from the current IEEE Conference template and substituted your code: overleaf.com/read/hbhwnkcmczyq (I'm not sure what version of IEEEtran.bst you're using. But that wouldn't normally affect this, I only mention it because it is a difference between my test project and your own project structure.) If you're unable to get this working, please write to us at [email protected] and we'll take a look at your whole project to see what might be causing this. Commented Mar 28, 2022 at 19:30

1 Answer 1


Thanks @Paul for your help. Here's how this was fixed.

a. Deleted the file IEEEtran.bst (which was initially empty, strange).

b. In the main.tex changed:




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