It's my first time using the acmart package. When building, all my inline citations triggers Citation ... on page x undefined error. But also, there are There were multiply defined citations. warning as well.

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In the PDF file, all inline citation are displayed as ??. The bibliography has all item numbers messed up and extra ] or ) symbols before each item:

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The generated .aux file also have redundant and meaningless bibcite entries:

\bibcite{)}{{1}{[n.\,d.(@}{{Alaloul et~al\mbox  {.}}}{{}}}
\bibcite{a}{{2}{[n.\,d.(@}{{Grčar et~al\mbox  {.}}}{{}}}
\bibcite{b}{{3}{[n.\,d.(@}{{Grčar et~al\mbox  {.}}}{{}}}
\bibcite{)}{{4}{[n.\,d.(@}{{Gupta et~al\mbox  {.}}}{{}}}
\bibcite{)}{{6}{[n.\,d.(@}{{Lazer et~al\mbox  {.}}}{{}}}

The minimal reproducible documents are:

\keywords{kw, k}
\cite{alaloulArtificialNeuralNetworks2018, khanKnowledgeExtractionSurvey2013, grcarKNNSVMCollaborative2006, guptaMovieRecommenderSystem2020}.
\cite{grcarKNNSVMCollaborative2006, guptaMovieRecommenderSystem2020}.
\cite{grcarKNNSVMCollaborative2006, grcarDataSparsityIssues2006}
  title = {An {{Artificial}} Neural Networks ({{ANN}}) Model for Evaluating Construction Project Performance Based on Coordination Factors},
  author = {Alaloul, Wesam Salah and Liew, Mohd Shahir and Wan Zawawi, Noor Amila and Mohammed, Bashar S and Adamu, Musa},
  editor = {Aziz, Hamidi Abdul},
  date = {2018-01-01},
  journaltitle = {Cogent Engineering},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1507657},
  publisher = {{Cogent OA}},
  issn = {null},
  doi = {10.1080/23311916.2018.1507657},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2018.1507657},
  urldate = {2022-05-09},
  annotation = {\_eprint: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2018.1507657},
  file = {/Users/zeyu/Zotero/storage/UC2IUWIL/Alaloul 等。 - 2018 - An Artificial neural networks (ANN) model for eval.pdf}

  title = {Data {{Sparsity Issues}} in the {{Collaborative Filtering Framework}}},
  booktitle = {Advances in {{Web Mining}} and {{Web Usage Analysis}}},
  author = {Grčar, Miha and Mladenič, Dunja and Fortuna, Blaž and Grobelnik, Marko},
  editor = {Nasraoui, Olfa and Zaïane, Osmar and Spiliopoulou, Myra and Mobasher, Bamshad and Masand, Brij and Yu, Philip S.},
  date = {2006},
  series = {Lecture {{Notes}} in {{Computer Science}}},
  pages = {58--76},
  publisher = {{Springer}},
  location = {{Berlin, Heidelberg}},
  doi = {10.1007/11891321_4},
  isbn = {978-3-540-46348-1},
  langid = {english}

  title = {{{kNN Versus SVM}} in the {{Collaborative Filtering Framework}}},
  booktitle = {Data {{Science}} and {{Classification}}},
  author = {Grčar, Miha and Fortuna, Blaž and Mladenič, Dunja and Grobelnik, Marko},
  editor = {Batagelj, Vladimir and Bock, Hans-Hermann and Ferligoj, Anuška and Žiberna, Aleš},
  date = {2006},
  series = {Studies in {{Classification}}, {{Data Analysis}}, and {{Knowledge Organization}}},
  pages = {251--260},
  publisher = {{Springer}},
  location = {{Berlin, Heidelberg}},
  doi = {10.1007/3-540-34416-0_27},
  isbn = {978-3-540-34416-2},
  langid = {english}

  title = {Movie {{Recommender System Using Collaborative Filtering}}},
  booktitle = {2020 {{International Conference}} on {{Electronics}} and {{Sustainable Communication Systems}} ({{ICESC}})},
  author = {Gupta, Meenu and Thakkar, Aditya and {Aashish} and Gupta, Vishal and Rathore, Dhruv Pratap Singh},
  date = {2020-07},
  pages = {415--420},
  doi = {10.1109/ICESC48915.2020.9155879},
  eventtitle = {2020 {{International Conference}} on {{Electronics}} and {{Sustainable Communication Systems}} ({{ICESC}})},
  file = {/Users/zeyu/Zotero/storage/GGIKU7KX/9155879.html}

  title = {Knowledge {{Extraction}} from {{Survey Data}} Using {{Neural Networks}}},
  author = {Khan, Imran},
  date = {2013-07-17},
  journaltitle = {Computer Science Theses},
  url = {https://scholarworks.uttyler.edu/compsci_grad/1},
  file = {/Users/zeyu/Zotero/storage/C3WCK4ZG/1.html}

  title = {Social Science. {{Computational}} Social Science},
  author = {Lazer, David and Pentland, Alex and Adamic, Lada and Aral, Sinan and Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo and Brewer, Devon and Christakis, Nicholas and Contractor, Noshir and Fowler, James and Gutmann, Myron and Jebara, Tony and King, Gary and Macy, Michael and Roy, Deb and Van Alstyne, Marshall},
  date = {2009-03-01},
  journaltitle = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
  shortjournal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
  volume = {323},
  pages = {721--3},
  doi = {10.1126/science.1167742},
  file = {/Users/zeyu/Zotero/storage/QFXY78U2/Lazer 等。 - 2009 - Social science. Computational social science.pdf}

And the .bib is exported by Zotero Better BibLatex plugin.

I have no clues what is the cause of the problem... Can someone help? Thanks!

Environment: BasicTex 2022 on M1 Mac with all relevant dependencies installed. (Can compile the ACM template). latexmk -pdf (i.e. pdflatex), xelatex, and manual pdflatex -> bibtex -> pdflatex*2 are tested. Tex Live 2021-2019 on Overleaf are also tested.

  • 1
    you are using bibtex, so the biblatex plugin doesn't fit. You are missing here the year field, as biblatex uses date. May 11, 2022 at 7:58

1 Answer 1


Thanks to Ulrike Fischer's comment that points out the difference between BibTeX and BibLaTeX. I just did a quick search and indeed that's the problem.

As is also mentioned in this post,

most academic publishers (that support LaTeX) do not support BibLaTeX and require references in either BibTeX format or something compiled thereof.

Therefore, re-export a BibTeX version of the bibliography will solve the problem.

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