2

I created a long table for my dissertation, But the border not completed as shown in attached figure:

enter image description here

The code is:

\newif\ifuseudlogo
% uncomment the following line if you want the UD logo in the title page
\useudlogotrue
\PassOptionsToPackage{usenames, dvipsnames}{color}
%\documentclass[11pt,phd]{uddissert2021}
\documentclass[11pt,phdfv]{uddissert2021} % use if you have 5 committee members
%\documentclass[11pt,ms]{uddissert2021}
\usepackage{uddissert2021-mods}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{appendix}
\usepackage{pdfcolparallel}
\usepackage{amssymb}
\usepackage{makecell}
%\usepackage{blindtext}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{tikz,pgfplots}
\usepackage{subfig}
\usepackage{epsfig}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage[noadjust]{cite}
\usepackage{filecontents}
\usepackage{longtable}
\usepackage{array}
\usepackage{longtable}
\usepackage{tabularray}
\usepackage[table,xcdraw]{xcolor}
\usepackage{booktabs,tabularx}
\newcolumntype{T}{>{\raggedright\arraybackslash}p{5.354cm}}
\usepackage{tabularx, caption}
\makeatletter
\newcommand*{\compress}{\@minipagetrue}
\makeatother
\usepackage{acronym}

\usepackage{tabularx}% http://ctan.org/pkg/tabularx
\usepackage{colortbl}% http://ctan.org/pkg/colortbl
\usepackage{xcolor}% http://ctan.org/pkg/xcolor
\usepackage{placeins}
\usepackage{amsmath}

%\usepackage{titlesec}
%\titleformat{\section}
 % {\normalfont\normalsize\bfseries}{\thesection.}{1em}{}
%\titleformat{\subsection}


\usepackage{float}
\usepackage{times} 
\usepackage{multirow}
\usepackage{microtype}
\usepackage{tabularray}   % for 'longtblr' environment
\UseTblrLibrary{varwidth}
\usepackage{enumitem,etoolbox,ragged2e}
\usepackage{ragged2e}
\usepackage{siunitx}

\begin{document}

\begin{longtable}[c]{|
>{\columncolor[HTML]{EFEFEF}}c |l|l|}
\caption{The benefits and drawbacks of various gait analysis systems.}
\label{tab:my-tab1}\\
\hline
\cellcolor[HTML]{C0C0C0}\textbf{Tech. \& Ref.} &
  \multicolumn{1}{c|}{\cellcolor[HTML]{C0C0C0}\textbf{Remarks}} &
  \multicolumn{1}{c|}{\cellcolor[HTML]{C0C0C0}\textbf{Limitations}} \\ \hline
\endfirsthead
%
\multicolumn{3}{c}%
{{\bfseries Table \thetable\ continued from previous page}} \\
\endhead
%
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Motion capture\\ camera\\ {[}2, 9, 50{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Gold-standard gait analysis system.\\ - Over virtual modeling, it provides \\ strong and exact capture of real \\ motions.\\ - Captured picture sequence \\ reusability. \\ - Allows for thorough information on \\ the topic and its surroundings. Subject\\  geometry \& texturing may be \\ precisely acquired.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Only for experiments with \\ active line-of-site, \\ a particular setup is required.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Inertial System\\ {[}16, 17, 30{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- High sampling rate from\\ 100Hertz to 10kHertz.\\ - The ability to measure tri-axial\\ data allows for 3-dimensional\\ analysis. Sensors are compact,\\ and light weighted, inexpensive.\\ - Output signals may be captured\\ and processed quickly. Gait\\ characteristics are monitored\\ throughout regular activities.\\ - There is no requirement for\\ a regulated setting, and it may be\\ used anywhere. The patient’s\\ active involvement may be\\ observed.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Subjects may be \\ uncomfortable since the\\ sensors must be attached \\ to their bodies.\\ Measurement of actual data\\ can be interrupted by skin \\ movement artifacts.\\ - It might be difficult to\\ determine the precise length\\ and the rotating axis.\\ - Acceleration sensing varies\\ depending on the location of\\ sensor attachments.\\ - Battery life is limited.\\ Estimating gait parameters\\ necessitates a complex \\ method.\\ - Set up cab be time \\ consuming, and can be \\ costly.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Optoelectronic\\ System\\ {[}2, 33, 34{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- This technology offers\\ detailed info on subject geometry.\\ - Provides physical motions\\ strongly and precisely.\\ - A complex analysis technique\\ allows for more accurate and\\ extensive measuring capabilities.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- For faster movement, \\ accuracy reduces because \\ of the sample rate \\ (50Hertz to 1kHertz).\\ - Surface issues with a \\ clear and reflecting surface.\\ - A costly laboratory setup is\\ sometimes necessary.\\ - Because of the marker’s\\ relationship to the body,\\ it might be uncomfortable\\ sometimes.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Electrogoniometer\\ {[}2, 10, 16{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Usually, they are affordable.\\ Output signals may be recorded\\ and computed immediately.\\ - Planner movement data may\\ be separately recorded. In general,\\ complicated processing methods are\\ not required by the system.\\ - The output signals are both linear\\ and proportional to the angular\\ displacement.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Angular movement in a \\ single plane.\\ - Uncomfortable in wearing.\\ - Fitting a joints axis with 2\\ or even more degrees of \\ freedom is difficult.\\ - Would not provide \\ high-quality output for \\ lower limbs.\\ - Only a few gait \\ parameters are available.\\ - External power is required.\\ - There is relative angular\\ information offered.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Gait mat \&\\ pressure mat\\ {[}12, 20, 51{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Non-active attachment to the\\ subject body.\\ - Low cost and portability. Foot\\ contact, dispersed pressure,\\ \& GRF datasets are all good.\\ - Center of pressure (CoP) is simple\\ to compute.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Sensors with finite sizes\\ provide a range of \\ resolutions.\\ - A higher resolution reduces\\ the system scan rate.\\ - Kinematics of the limbs\\ must be combined.\\ - Only for use in a laboratory\\ or clinical environment.\\ - Limited length of mat.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Force Shoes\\ {[}16, 17, 41{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- The sensors’ active\\ attachment with shoes\\ allows for everywhere use.\\ - Pressure distribution is\\ measured.\\ - The distributed sensor positions\\ enable a wide variety of foot sizes\\ to be accommodated.\\ - GRF data sets are provided.\\ - CoP may be calculated using\\ limb kinematic data.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Kinematic data from the\\ limbs is required to \\ integrate with the system. \\ Uncomfortable sometimes.\\ - Difficulties in determining\\ optimum placement for\\ a non-distributed \\ arrangement. Slow reaction\\  will result in incorrect \\ interpretation.\\ - Less efficient while \\ walking up \& down stairs \\ as well as on rough or \\ uneven ground.\\ - Must be used with shoes.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Magnetic System\\ {[}41, 48, 52{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- It is not affected by line-of-sight.\\ - It is possible to get\\ degree-of-freedom motion\\ information.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Magnetic materials could\\ distort signals.\\ - Data processing has a \\ high level of complexity.\\ - Because of the limited \\ system responsiveness, \\ the high-fidelity analysis \\ would be out of the\\ question.\\ - It is not often used.\\ - Incompatible with \\ advanced gait analysis \\ technology.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Acoustic tracking\\ System\\ {[}10, 47, 49{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Combining with other\\ technology might be beneficial.\\ - The measurement range is 1.7cm\\ to 450cm.\\ - Useful for signaling heel contact\\ \& off moment while walking on\\ uneven or bumpy surfaces, as well\\ as for ascending-descending stairs.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Because of noise, it \\ does not offer correct \\ information.\\ - The calculation \\ difficulty is severe.\\ - A clear line-of-sight \\ is essential.\\ - Uncomfortable at times.\\ - It is not often used.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\begin{tabular}[c]{@{}c@{}}Radar System\\ {[}37–39{]}\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- It does not require the individual\\ to wear anything.\\ - It can monitor gait continuously\\ over long period of time.\\ - It does not violate privacy like\\ video.\\ - It can monitor more than one\\ person at a time.\\ - It does not require the individual\\ to remember to change and place\\ the device on themselves.\\ - It is inexpensive.\end{tabular} &
  \begin{tabular}[c]{@{}l@{}}- Not yet adequately \\ validated for gait analysis.\\ - Not yet able to measure\\ kinematics such as joint \\ range of motions.\\ - Not yet able to provide\\ important temporal spatial\\ gait data (eg. stride length,\\ single and double support\\ time, toe clearance, step\\ width etc.).\\ - Not yet able to report\\ clinical gait measures in\\ an easy to use and simple\\ interface.\end{tabular} \\ \hline
\end{longtable}
\end{document}

enter image description here

1
  • 1
    Please extend your code fragment to complete small document (MWE: Minimal Working Example) which we can test as it is. BTW, inserting your table in an article document, I can0t reproduce your problem )looking in Sumatra). From code can be concluded, that your problem is pdf viewer artifact,
    – Zarko
    Jun 8 at 20:00

2 Answers 2

3

As I mentioned in my comment, first vertical line in table is present, but apparently in your pdf viewer is not visible. If you will zoom beginning of table, it will become visible also in it.

Off topic: I would write your table differently. For table I would use tabularray package and for list in cells enumitem package. Using them table's code become concise and clearer. With use of \small font size are text better accommodate to cells sizes.

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage{geometry}

\usepackage{ragged2e}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{tabularray}
\UseTblrLibrary{varwidth}  % <===
\usepackage{enumitem}
\usepackage{etoolbox}
\AtBeginEnvironment{longtblr}%
{
\setlist[itemize]{nosep,
                  label=--, % or \textbullet
                  wide,
                  after=\end{minipage},
                  before=\begin{minipage}[t]{\linewidth}\RaggedRight
                  }
}

\begin{document}
\begin{longtblr}[
caption = {The benefits and drawbacks of various gait analysis systems.},
  label = {tab:my-tab1}
                ]{hlines, vlines,
                  colspec = {Q[1, l,m, bg=gray!30] X[2,l,h] X[2,l,h]},
                   colsep = 4pt,
                  rowhead = 1,
                   row{1} = {font=\small\bfseries, c, bg=gray!50}, 
                   rows   = {font=\small}, 
                  measure = vbox,
                  }
Tech. \& Ref. & Remarks   &   Limitations       \\
Motion capture camera\par 
{[2, 9, 50]}    &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Gold-standard gait analysis system.
                \item   Over virtual modeling, it provides strong and exact capture of real motions.
                \item   Captured picture sequence reusability. 
                 \item  Allows for thorough information on the topic and its surroundings. Subject  geometry \& texturing may be  precisely acquired.
                    \end{itemize} 
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   Only for experiments with active line-of-site, a particular setup is required.
                        \end{itemize}       \\
Inertial System\par 
{[16, 17, 30]}  &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   High sampling rate from 100Hertz to 10kHertz.
                \item   The ability to measure tri-axial data allows for 3-dimensional analysis. Sensors are compact, and light weighted, inexpensive.
                \item   Output signals may be captured and processed quickly. Gait characteristics are monitored throughout regular activities.
                \item   There is no requirement for a regulated setting, and it may be used anywhere. The patient’s active involvement may be observed.
                    \end{itemize}
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                        \item   Subjects may be uncomfortable since the sensors must be attached to their bodies. Measurement of actual data can be interrupted by skin movement artifacts.
                        \item   It might be difficult to determine the precise length and the rotating axis.
                        \item   Acceleration sensing varies depending on the location of sensor attachments.
                        \item   Battery life is limited. Estimating gait parameters necessitates a complex method.
                        \item   Set up cab be time consuming, and can be costly.
                            \end{itemize}       \\
Optoelectronic System\par 
{[2, 33, 34]}   &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   This technology offers detailed info on subject geometry.
                \item   Provides physical motions strongly and precisely.
                \item   A complex analysis technique allows for more accurate and extensive measuring capabilities.
                    \end{itemize} 
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   For faster movement, accuracy reduces because of the sample rate (50Hertz to 1kHertz).
                    \item   Surface issues with a  clear and reflecting surface.
                    \item   A costly laboratory setup is\\ sometimes necessary.
                    \item   Because of the marker’s\\ relationship to the body, it might be uncomfortable sometimes.
                        \end{itemize}       \\ 
Electrogoniometer\par 
{[2, 10, 16]}   &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Usually, they are affordable. Output signals may be recorded and computed immediately. 
                \item   Planner movement data may be separately recorded. In general, complicated processing methods are not required by the system.
                \item   The output signals are both linear\\ and proportional to the angular displacement.
                    \end{itemize}
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   Angular movement in a single plane.
                    \item   Uncomfortable in wearing.
                    \item   Fitting a joints axis with 2 or even more degrees of freedom is difficult.
                    \item   Would not provide high-quality output for lower limbs.
                    \item   Only a few gait parameters are available.
                    \item   External power is required.
                    \item   There is relative angular information offered.
                        \end{itemize}       \\
Gait mat \& pressure mat\par
{[12, 20, 51]}   &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Non-active attachment to the subject body.
                \item   Low cost and portability. Foot contact, dispersed pressure, \& GRF datasets are all good. 
                \item   Center of pressure (CoP) is simple to compute.
                    \end{itemize}
                   &   \begin{itemize}
                   \item   Sensors with finite sizes provide a range of resolutions.
                   \item    A higher resolution reduces the system scan rate.
                   \item    Kinematics of the limbs must be combined.
                   \item    Only for use in a laboratory or clinical environment.
                   \item    Limited length of mat.
                        \end{itemize}       \\ 
Force Shoes\par 
{[16, 17, 41]}  &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Non-active attachment to the subject body.
                \item   The sensors’ active  attachment with shoes allows for everywhere use.
                \item   Pressure distribution is measured.
                \item   The distributed sensor positions enable a wide variety of foot sizes\\ to be accommodated.
                \item   GRF data sets are provided.
                \item   CoP may be calculated using limb kinematic data.
                    \end{itemize}
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Kinematic data from the limbs is required to integrate with the system. Uncomfortable sometimes.
                \item   Difficulties in determining optimum placement for a non-distributed arrangement. Slow reaction will result in incorrect  interpretation.
                \item   Less efficient while walking up \& down stairs as well as on rough or uneven ground.
                \item   Must be used with shoes.
                    \end{itemize}           \\
Magnetic System\par 
{[41, 48, 52]}  &   \begin{itemize}
                \item    Non-active attachment to the subject body.
                \item   It is not affected by line-of-sight.
                \item   It is possible to get\\ degree-of-freedom motion\\ information.\end{itemize} 
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   Magnetic materials could distort signals.
                    \item   Data processing has a high level of complexity.
                    \item   Because of the limited system responsiveness, the high-fidelity analysis would be out of the question.
                    \item   It is not often used.
                    \item   Incompatible with advanced gait analysis technology.
                        \end{itemize}       \\
Acoustic tracking System\par 
{[10, 47, 49]}  &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   Combining with other\\ technology might be beneficial.\\ - The measurement range is 1.7cm\\ to 450cm.\\ - Useful for signaling heel contact\\ \& off moment while walking on\\ uneven or bumpy surfaces, as well\\ as for ascending-descending stairs.
                    \end{itemize} 
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   Because of noise, it does not offer correct information.
                    \item   The calculation difficulty is severe.
                    \item   A clear line-of-sight is essential.
                    \item   Uncomfortable at times.
                    \item   It is not often used.
                        \end{itemize}       \\ 
Radar System\par 
{[37–39]}  &   \begin{itemize}
                \item   It does not require the individual to wear anything.
                \item   It can monitor gait continuously over long period of time.
                \item   It does not violate privacy like video.
                \item   It can monitor more than one person at a time.
                \item   It does not require the individual to remember to change and place the device on themselves.
                \item   It is inexpensive.
                    \end{itemize} 
                    &   \begin{itemize}
                    \item   Not yet adequately validated for gait analysis.
                    \item   Not yet able to measure kinematics such as joint  range of motions.
                    \item   Not yet able to provide important temporal spatial gait data (eg. stride length,  single and double support  time, toe clearance, step width etc.).
                    \item   Not yet able to report clinical gait measures in an easy to use and simple interface.
                        \end{itemize}       \\ 
\end{longtblr}
\end{document}

enter image description here

Image is copied from Sumatra viewer. The same result is visible in Adobe Acrobat DC too. In printed version of document the thickness of all lines will be the same.

Addendum (1): As suggest @Mico in his comment, using leftmargin=* for list formatting is for many people more appealing as is shown in above solution. Also bullets is (for many= nice than used dash With thicker lines may make lines better visible also in colored columns/cells:

\documentclass{book}
\usepackage{geometry}

\usepackage{ragged2e}
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{tabularray}
\UseTblrLibrary{varwidth}  % <===
\usepackage{enumitem}
\usepackage{etoolbox}
\AtBeginEnvironment{longtblr}%
{
\setlist[itemize]{nosep,
                  label=\textbullet,
                  leftmargin=*,
                  after=\end{minipage},
                  before=\begin{minipage}[t]{\linewidth}\RaggedRight
                  }
}

\begin{document}
\begin{longtblr}[
caption = {The benefits and drawbacks of various gait analysis systems.},
  label = {tab:my-tab1}
                ]{hlines=0.5pt, vlines=0.5pt,
                  colspec = {Q[1, l,m, bg=gray!30] X[2,l,h] X[2,l,h]},
                   colsep = 4pt,
                  rowhead = 1,
                   row{1} = {font=\small\bfseries, c, bg=gray!50}, 
                   rows   = {font=\small}, 
                  measure = vbox,
                  }
% table body as before

enter image description here

Addendum (2): Regarding your document preamble:

  • You use document class which is not public, so its structure is unknown as well its combability with packages.
  • many packages are loaded twice or more since some of them are already loaded by other packages.
  • It is unknow, if you really need all these packages. Some are obsolete (epsfig) some have loaded their supersedes (amsmath --> mathtools, colortbl-->[table, ...]{xcolor}˙`

I suggest to remove all duplicate and grouping packages according to their purpose, for example for math, tables etc.), then test if all packages are really needed (comment one after one and see if document still can be compiled).

Since I haven't used document classes and some of loaded packages, I can't test table with your document.

10
  • +1. I would probably use the option left (or leftmargin=*) rather than wide, though.
    – Mico
    Jun 8 at 21:30
  • Still not work and the left border still not completed, also it shows me word ( vbox ) and the table started from next page.
    – user258528
    Jun 8 at 21:41
  • I corrected the my code above, but when I used your code NOT WORKING
    – user258528
    Jun 8 at 21:55
  • @Zarko - Could you update your code depend on my environment above. I have updated my code above
    – user258528
    Jun 8 at 22:11
  • 1
    @Nasser, I'm sorry. Since you are on Overleaf, I can't help you much (I0m not familiar with it, I'm only informed, that it use version from June las year, after then due to fast development of package was seven releases till now. So you must usk their support how you can install it in your folder recent version of package) Other possibilities, that you install some Latex distribution (MiKTeX, TeXlive, etc., depends on OS which you use). Otherwise is better to stick with nice Mico answer and ask them for eventual changes which you like to do on suggested code.
    – Zarko
    Jun 9 at 0:02
1

As @Zarko has already pointed out in a comment, the "disappearing lines" issue you've encountered is a browser-issue artifact. Since the gray columns and rows don't do much anyway, aesthetically speaking, you might was well omit the gray stuff. I'd rather focus on simplifying the inputs by getting rid of all the tabular "wrappers" and letting LaTeX do most of the formatting job, mainly by setting up bespoke itemize-like environments in columns 2 and 3.

In the following, I've used an xltabular environment, which combines the capabilities of longtable and tabularx environments, instead of the longtable environment.

enter image description here

\documentclass{article} % or some other suitable document class
\usepackage[letterpaper,margin=1in]{geometry} % set page parameters as needed
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage{xltabular,ragged2e,makecell}

\usepackage{enumitem}
\newlist{tabitemize}{itemize}{1}
\setlist[tabitemize,1]{label=\textendash,nosep,left=0pt,
     before={\begin{minipage}[t]{\linewidth}\RaggedRight},
     after={\strut\end{minipage}}}

\newlength\mylen
\settowidth\mylen{\textbf{Tech.\ \& Ref.}} % measure width of 1st column

\hyphenation{electro-goniometer}
\newcommand\mc[1]{\multicolumn{1}{c|}{#1}} % handy shortcut macro

\begin{document}

\setlength\extrarowheight{2pt}
\begin{xltabular}{\textwidth}{| >{\Centering\hspace{0pt}}p{\mylen} | X | X | }
\caption{Benefits and drawbacks of various gait analysis systems}
\label{tab:my-tab1}\\
\hline
\textbf{Tech.\ \& Ref.} & \mc{\textbf{Remarks}} & \mc{\textbf{Limitations}}
\\ \hline
\endfirsthead

\multicolumn{3}{c}{Table \thetable, continued} \\[1ex]
\hline
\textbf{Tech.\ \& Ref.} & \mc{\textbf{Remarks}} & \mc{\textbf{Limitations}} 
  \\ \hline
\endhead

\multicolumn{3}{r@{}}{\footnotesize\em continued on following page}\\
\endfoot

\hline
\endlastfoot


Motion capture camera \newline [2, 9, 50] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Gold-standard gait analysis system.
\item Over virtual modeling, it provides strong and exact capture 
      of real motions.
\item Captured picture sequence reusability. 
\item Allows for thorough information on the topic and its surroundings. 
      Subject geometry \& texturing may be precisely acquired. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Only for experiments with active line-of-site, a particular 
      setup is required. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Inertial System \newline [16, 17, 30] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item High sampling rate from 100\,Hz to 10\,kHz.
\item The ability to measure tri-axial data allows for 3-dimensional 
      analysis. Sensors are compact, and light weighted, inexpensive.
\item Output signals may be captured and processed quickly. Gait 
      characteristics are monitored throughout regular activities.
\item There is no requirement for a regulated setting, and it may be used 
      anywhere. The patient's active involvement may be observed. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Subjects may be uncomfortable since the sensors must be attached to 
      their bodies. 
\item Measurement of actual data can be interrupted by skin movement 
      artifacts.
\item It might be difficult to determine the precise length and the 
      rotating axis.
\item Acceleration sensing varies depending on the location of sensor 
      attachments.
\item Battery life is limited. Estimating gait parameters necessitates 
      a complex method.
\item Set up cab be time consuming, and can be costly. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Optoelectronic System \newline [2, 33, 34] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item This technology offers detailed info on subject geometry.
\item Provides physical motions strongly and precisely.
\item A complex analysis technique allows for more accurate and 
      extensive measuring capabilities. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item For faster movement, accuracy reduces because of the sample 
      rate (50\,Hz to 1\,kHz).
\item Surface issues with a clear and reflecting surface.
\item A costly laboratory setup is sometimes necessary.
\item Because of the marker's relationship to the body, it might 
      be uncomfortable sometimes. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Electrogoniometer \newline [2, 10, 16] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Usually, they are affordable. Output signals may be recorded 
      and computed immediately.
\item Planner movement data may be separately recorded. In general, 
      complicated processing methods are not required by the system.
\item The output signals are both linear and proportional to the 
      angular displacement. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Angular movement in a single plane.
\item Uncomfortable in wearing.
\item Fitting a joints axis with 2 or even more degrees of freedom 
      is difficult.
\item Would not provide high-quality output for lower limbs.
\item Only a few gait parameters are available.
\item External power is required.
\item There is relative angular information offered.
\end{tabitemize} 
\\ \hline
Gait mat \& pressure mat \newline [12, 20, 51] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Non-active attachment to the subject body.
\item Low cost and portability. Foot contact, dispersed pressure, \& 
      GRF datasets are all good.
\item Center of pressure (CoP) is simple to compute. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Sensors with finite sizes provide a range of resolutions.
\item A higher resolution reduces the system scan rate.
\item Kinematics of the limbs must be combined.
\item Only for use in a laboratory or clinical environment.
\item Limited length of mat. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Force Shoes \newline [16, 17, 41] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item The sensors' active attachment with shoes allows for everywhere use.
\item Pressure distribution is measured.
\item The distributed sensor positions enable a wide variety of foot 
      sizes to be accommodated.
\item GRF data sets are provided.
\item CoP may be calculated using limb kinematic data. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Kinematic data from the limbs is required to integrate with 
      the system.  Uncomfortable sometimes.
\item Difficulties in determining optimum placement for a 
      non-distributed arrangement. Slow reaction will result in 
      incorrect interpretation.
\item Less efficient while walking up \& down stairs as well as on 
      rough or uneven ground.
\item Must be used with shoes. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Magnetic System \newline [41, 48, 52] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item It is not affected by line-of-sight.
\item It is possible to get degree-of-freedom motion information. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Magnetic materials could distort signals.
\item Data processing has a high level of complexity.
\item Because of the limited system responsiveness, the high-fidelity 
      analysis would be out of the question.
\item It is not often used.
\item Incompatible with advanced gait analysis technology. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Acoustic tracking System \newline [10, 47, 49] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Combining with other technology might be beneficial.
\item The measurement range is 1.7\,cm to 450\,cm.
\item Useful for signaling heel contact \& off moment while walking on
      uneven or bumpy surfaces, as well as for ascending\slash descending stairs. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Because of noise, it does not offer correct information.
\item The calculation difficulty is severe.
\item A clear line-of-sight is essential.
\item Uncomfortable at times.
\item It is not often used. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ \hline
Radar System \newline [37--39] 
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item It does not require the individual to wear anything.
\item It can monitor gait continuously over long period of time.
\item It does not violate privacy like video.
\item It can monitor more than one person at a time.
\item It does not require the individual to remember to change 
      and place the device on themselves.
\item It is inexpensive. 
\end{tabitemize}
&
\begin{tabitemize}
\item Not yet adequately validated for gait analysis.
\item Not yet able to measure kinematics such as joint range of motions.
\item Not yet able to provide important temporal spatial gait data 
      (e.g., stride length, single and double support time, toe 
      clearance, step width etc.).
\item Not yet able to report clinical gait measures in an easy to 
      use and simple interface. 
\end{tabitemize}
\\ 
\end{xltabular}
\end{document}
13
  • Do I need to copy whole code above?
    – user258528
    Jun 8 at 21:49
  • 1
    @Nasser - Well, as the screenshot I posted attests, my code DOES WORK. Please clarify what you did in the process of “copying my code”. E.g., did you copy the preamble material as well as the body of the document? Or maybe just the body but not the preamble? Please be specific.
    – Mico
    Jun 8 at 22:00
  • 1
    @Nasser - You mentioned that you copied the code between \begin{document} and \end{document} into the body of your document. I take it that this means that you did not copy the preamble material into the preamble of your document. That would certainly explain why you can't compile my code. You needn't copy the first three lines (the \documentclass declaration and the first two \usepackage statements), but you should definitely copy over the rest.
    – Mico
    Jun 8 at 22:25
  • 1
    @Nasser - My TeX distribution does not appear to feature any files related to the uddissert2021 document class. Hence, I cannot compile your code. Sorry.
    – Mico
    Jun 8 at 22:26
  • 1
    Off-Topic: Among many things I like about this website, other than the highly skilled latex users and useful answers, is also the beautiful patience, decent and respectful replies from people like Mico. Thank You!
    – hesham
    Jun 9 at 1:05

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy