I have a latex document where I am using IEEEtran bibliography style for adding references. There is a huge blank space after the first bibitem and that leaves a huge blank space on the page. How do I remove this huge blank space and make sure my bibliography covers the whole page?

Here is my premable


% \usepackage{caption}
\graphicspath{ {./images/} }
%% For Algorithms
\algnewcommand\algorithmicforeach{\textbf{for each}}
\algdef{S}[FOR]{ForEach}[1]{\algorithmicforeach\ #1\ \algorithmicdo}

% To balance the last page columns

% correct bad hyphenation here
\hyphenation{op-tical net-works semi-conduc-tor}

% To cite with numbers as well as last name;
% \usepackage[squares,numbers,sort&compress]{natbib}
% \bibliographystyle{abbrvnat}

% for line breaks
% \usepackage[nobiblatex]{xurl}




Here is the code for adding bibliography


\bibitem{c1}S. Hochreiter en J. Schmidhuber, “Long short-term memory”, Neural computation, vol 9, no 8, bll 1735–1780, 1997.
\bibitem{c2}G. Hinton, O. Vinyals, en J. Dean, “Distilling the knowledge in a neural network”, arXiv preprint arXiv:1503. 02531, 2015.  
\bibtem{c23} some reference ..

You can see a lot of blank space after the first bibitem

  • Welcome to TeX.SE.
    – Mico
    Commented Jun 18, 2022 at 18:33
  • 1
    It's not possible to recreate your problem exactly with that code, but it's possible that the problem is caused by the flushend package trying to balance the final columns. If you don't need that package, take it out, or try putting \raggedend after \begin{bibliography}. If it's not that, an image of your final result might help identify the cause.
    – frabjous
    Commented Jun 18, 2022 at 19:11
  • @frabjous I have added a image of the final results. I have also tried removing the flushen package but it doesn't help my cause. Any other suggestions woul be appreciated. Commented Jun 18, 2022 at 19:25
  • 1
    I don't see anything wrong in that picture. The IEEEtran document class equalizes the columns on the final page of the document by design; see its documentation, section XIV. You should probably either stick to its design or use a different document class if you don't like it.
    – frabjous
    Commented Jun 18, 2022 at 20:52
  • please always provide an example that shows the problem, not just a fragment of code that can't be tested Commented Jan 13 at 10:41

1 Answer 1


Just remove the flushend package.

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