I am working on a research paper using LaTeX for an IEEE journal, and this paper involves some constants (say, a, b, c and d). When I write subsection headings involving these constants, for example..

\section{Dynamic Analysis}
\subsection{Changes in the pressure constant $a$}

xxxxxxx yyyyyyy zzzzz

This subsection heading is printed in capital letters when I run LaTeX and reviewers are asking me to fix the subsection headings so that the system constants appear in small letters rather than capital letters.

How can I take care of this problem?

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    – user202729
    Jul 11, 2022 at 11:00

1 Answer 1


The ieeeaccess class is, unfortunately, very badly written. Section titles are an example, because the class uses \uppercase which may break badly when you try to use some accented letter in a title.

Anyway, that's what they want, so we need to find a workaround for your problem. Here it is:

\subsection{Changes in the pressure constant \lowercase{$a$}}

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