I am using this journal template where all bibliographic citations are superscripted such as:

This is true.4

With the corresponding script being:

This is true.\cite{paper_4}

However, I would like some bibliographic citations to appear as normal index numbers when used in a sentence such as:

Ref. 4 shows that this is true.

Right now, using the script:

Ref. \cite{paper_4} shows that this is true.

I will get:

Ref. 4 shows that this is true.

How can produce a normal sized citation index instead of a superscript index?

Thanks in advance!

  • Welcome to TeX.SE... Please post your MWE from \documentclass to \end{document}
    – MadyYuvi
    Aug 5, 2022 at 15:15

1 Answer 1


I’m not entirely certain what exactly you want to achieve. Do you want to refer back to a footnote that is defined elsewhere (doesn’t matter if it’s earlier in the text or later)? In that case you can use a \label and then use \ref to refer to:

This is some text.\footnote{\label{footlabel}%
  This footnote contains some awesome proof.

As shown in footnote~\ref{footlabel}, this is true.

Note that you will have to compile the document twice.

If what you want to do is create the footnote – i.e. have no conventional footnote at all but have Ref. 4 as the only reference to the footnote (which in this scheme is really an endnote), you can do the following:


Ref.~\endnotemark\ shows that this is true.
\endnotetext{Here is my awesome proof.}

The class you’re using links the footnote counter to that for endnotes, so there is no problem with the counters and you can still use \footnote and have it display the way you’re used to.

That said, I would still advise you don’t do this. It’s not how readers expect footnotes to work. What’s more, seeing as your journal puts out a style sheet, the editors might view that as a breach of that style. Either reference an existing footnote or, if that is not an option but the proof in question is still important enough to mention in the text, then why not put it in the main text to begin with.

  • Hope the OP meant reference entry cross link, not the footnote link
    – MadyYuvi
    Aug 5, 2022 at 15:18
  • Hi, thank you for your answer. Yes I meant cross-refences. I will amend my question to make it clearer. I have seen in publications of that journal that people do use Ref. 4 instead of Ref.<sup>4</sup>. However I do not get how they achieve that since the writing guidelines only propose superscripted cross-reference indexes. Could your endnote suggestion work with \cite{my ref}?
    – papaya
    Aug 8, 2022 at 9:17
  • No, my solution only redefines how the marker for an endnote is displayed; it doesn’t touch the cite commands. You could put \cite{myref} within the argument of \endnotetext but the example document states clearly that you should give your references within the text using \pcite (i.e. in parentheses). So I would only use citation commands within a footnote when giving evidence for a piece of text that’s also in the footnote.
    – Abun
    Aug 9, 2022 at 10:12

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