I am aware that there are multiple questions with similar content but none seem to work for me so let me try to ask this again.

I am working on a project using the Springer template. I have encountered a problem with bibliography. I open up a freshly downloaded template and the bibliography doesn't work. I get questions marks where the citations should be. I am using TeXStudio. I have changed the F5 functionality to PdfLaTeX - BibTeX - PdfLaTex - PdfLaTex and it still doesnt work.

The template says to open the .bll file and copy the contents into the manuscript itself. When I try to open the .bll file it is empty.

There is also a sn-sample-bib.tex file with the following contents:


\bibitem{bib1} I.~Podlubny, Fractional Differential Equations, Academie Press, New York, 1999.



There is this part of the template:

\bibliography{sn-bibliography}% common bib file
%% if required, the content of .bbl file can be included here once bbl is generated
%%\input sn-article.bbl

%% Default %%
%%\input sn-sample-bib.tex%

The .bib file has 12 entries and none get cited right. If I use: \input sn-sample-bib.tex% only the entries from that file will get cited right. Not all entries from sn-bibliography.bib are in sn-sample-bib.tex.

Did anyone had and solved this problem?

I am using TeXStudio

  • Do I understand you correctly that you want all entries in the bib file to be typeset in the formatted biliography even though you don't explicitly \cite all of them? Please clarify.
    – Mico
    Commented Sep 27, 2022 at 19:45
  • In the template there are bib1 through bib12 used with \cite but in the sn-sample-bib.tex there are only bib1 through bib7. If I understand correctly BibTex should go through .bib file, find all of the references that I need and generate a .bbl file. I would than copy the contents of the .bbl file into my main .tex file so that .PdfLaTeX can format it correctly?
    – CH4
    Commented Sep 27, 2022 at 19:56
  • If the tex file \cites entries 1 thru 7 in the bib file and if you run bibtex correctly, then the final pdf file should contain the 7 citation call-outs along with the 7 formatted bibliographic items in the bibliography. I'm not sure what you mean by "In the template there are bib1 through bib12". Is this "template" the bib file? Now, many researchers create bib files that grow over time to contain hundreds, and sometimes even thousands, of entries. In any given tex file, they may \cite just a handful of these entries. Nothing wrong with that.
    – Mico
    Commented Sep 27, 2022 at 20:23
  • all of the entries in the .bib file are mentioned or should I say cited in the main .tex file with \cite{}
    – CH4
    Commented Sep 28, 2022 at 5:49

1 Answer 1


I am using a MiKTeX distribution on a win 7 x64 system. I can get the list of references using

pdflatex + bibtex8.exe + pdflatex + pdflatex

(while using bibtex.exe fails)


% !TeX TS-program = pdflatex



The Introduction section, of referenced text \cite{bib1} expands on the background of the work (some overlap with the Abstract is acceptable). The introduction should not include subheadings.

\subsection{Details on reference citations}\label{subsec7}

Standard \LaTeX\ permits only numerical citations. To support both numerical and author-year citations this template uses \verb+natbib+ \LaTeX\ package. For style guidance please refer to the template user manual.

Here is an example for \verb+\cite{...}+: \cite{bib1}. Another example for \verb+\citep{...}+: \citep{bib2}. For author-year citation mode, \verb+\cite{...}+ prints Jones et al. (1990) and \verb+\citep{...}+ prints (Jones et al., 1990).

All cited bib entries are printed at the end of this article: \cite{bib3}, \cite{bib4}, \cite{bib5}, \cite{bib6}, \cite{bib7}, \cite{bib8}, \cite{bib9}, \cite{bib10}, \cite{bib11} and \cite{bib12}.

\bibliography{sn-bibliography}% common bib file


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