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I am encountering issues with vertically aligning a two-column document. Occasionally, the alignment is incorrect in either the left or right column. I am also experiencing similar issues with figures, where they do not fill the vertical space and increasing the size causes them to move to another page or the end of the document. I have included my preamble and a minimal working example (MWE) for reference with two images of the issue both pages should align to the red line.

\documentclass[10pt,letterpaper,twocolumn]{article}
\usepackage{geometry}
\usepackage[small,raggedright]{titlesec}
\usepackage{authblk}
\usepackage[none]{hyphenat}
\usepackage{flushend}
\usepackage{helvet}

\setlength{\parskip}{0.2mm plus5mm minus0.1mm}
\setlength{\columnsep}{.36in}
\geometry{tmargin=3.5cm,bmargin=4cm,lmargin=2.5cm,rmargin=2.5cm,headheight=2.7cm,footskip=2.5cm}
\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault}
\pagestyle{empty}

\renewcommand{\title}[2][\relax]{%
    \gdef\@shorttile{#1}%
    \gdef\@title{#2}}


\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\maketitle}{\twocolumn[\@maketitle]}
\makeatother

\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\title}[2][\relax]{%
    \gdef\@shorttile{#1}%
    \gdef\@title{#2}}
\makeatother

\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\@maketitle}{%
    \begin{center}%
        {\Large\bf \@title\par}%
        \noindent%
        \vskip 18pt%
        \begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
            \@author\\%
        \end{tabular}
    \end{center}%
    \@thanks
}
\makeatother

\renewenvironment{abstract}%
{\vspace{.19in}\noindent \textbf{\small Abstract.}\small}%
{{\small \par}}

\newenvironment{resumen}%
{\vspace{.19in}\noindent \textbf{\small Resumen.}\small}%
{{\small \par}}

\newenvironment{keywords}{\vspace{.08in}\noindent\textbf{\small Keywords.}\small}{\small\par}
\newenvironment{palabrasclave}{\vspace{.08in}\noindent\textbf{\small Palabras clave.}\small}{\small\par}
\newcommand{\up}[1]{\textsuperscript{#1}}
\titlelabel{\thetitle\ }

\title{ Title\\
    Subtitle}

\author{Author1\up{1}, Author2\up{2},\\
        Author3\up{3}, Author4\up{1},\\
        Author5\up{4}}

\affil{ \up{1} University,\authorcr
            Department,\authorcr
    Country
    \authorcr \authorcr
    \up{2} University,\authorcr
    Department,\authorcr
    Country         
    \authorcr  \authorcr
    \up{3} University,\authorcr
    Department,\authorcr
    Country
    \authorcr  \authorcr
    \up{4} University,\authorcr
    Country
    %               
    \authorcr \authorcr
    %
    Emails 1,\authorcr
    Emails 2\authorcr
}

\begin{document}
    
    \maketitle
    
    \renewcommand{\tablename}{Table}
    
    \begin{abstract}
        The main objective of hydraulics applied in oil well drilling is to ensure cleanliness at the bottom of the well, this consists of keeping in continuous movement the solids or cuttings of the formation, transporting the largest amount of them from the bottom and the annular space to the surface, thus minimizing the existence of unwanted events such as sticking, entrapment, among others.
        Each oil well has specific geological, geophysical and geomechanical characteristics that must be taken into account for its design, based on technical and scientific considerations that allow the establishment of its mechanical state and its exploitation engineering studies. The rheological behavior of a fluid in these wells cannot be generalized, even if they are separated by a few hundred meters. This paper describes the development of a graphical computational model for the fast and efficient calculation of the various hydraulic aspects associated with onshore oil well drilling. The model is arranged in three stages: First, the position of the drill pipes in the drillstring is evaluated and their pull margin is determined. Then, the hydraulic calculation procedures of national and international companies are developed. Finally, rheological models (Bingham plastic and exponential law) are used for fluid behavior. The model was developed with Microsoft Visual Basic.
    \end{abstract}
    
    \begin{keywords} 
        Drilling hydraulics, rheology, bit pressure, annular pressure, equivalent circulating density.
    \end{keywords} 

\section{Introduction}
\label{sec:introduction}
The Microsoft Excel calculation memory is one of the basic and universally used tools in engineering and has been enhanced with the inclusion of the Visual Basic language as a programming and task automation tool.

Since its first versions, Visual Basic has allowed the development of several engineering applications due to its ease of learning, simple and immediate implementation, and its versatility that allows the development of programming instructions according to specific needs of the oilwell drilling industry, such as gas correlations, volumetric reserves calculations, simple log analysis, water pattern analysis, among others. The oil industry has undergone a transformation thanks to the advances in computer industry and the introduction of the Internet, which, among other applications, have enabled log acquisition and analysis, reservoir simulation, well testing, production and reserve data analysis, as well as the filling of regulatory reports.

Since its first versions, Visual Basic has allowed the development of several engineering applications due to its ease of learning, simple and immediate implementation, and its versatility that allows the development of programming instructions according to specific needs of the oilwell drilling industry, such as gas correlations, volumetric reserves calculations, simple log analysis, water pattern analysis, among others.

The oil industry has undergone a transformation thanks to the advances in computer industry and the introduction of the Internet, which, among other applications, have enabled log acquisition and analysis, reservoir simulation, well testing, production and reserve data analysis, as well as the filling of regulatory reports.
\end{document}

enter image description here

enter image description here

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  • why three \small here?? \renewenvironment{abstract}% {\vspace{.19in}\noindent \textbf{\small Abstract.}\small}% {{\small \par}} Commented Jan 23, 2023 at 17:35

1 Answer 1

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The left column has no white space so is necessarily a multiple of \small baselineskip which does not give anny flxiblity to reach the bottom margin, however you can adjust the space by eye:

enter image description here

is obtained by changing abstract to

\renewenvironment{abstract}%
{\par\small\hrule height 0pt\vspace*{-.19in}\noindent \textbf{Abstract.}}%
{\par}

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