I have downloaded the following latex template to prepare a paper submission for International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools: https://www.worldscientific.com/page/ijait/stylefiles-readme-2e

The file ws-ijait.tex is the template to be used as a main manuscript. In the template, they mention that citations should appear as superscripts and that they can be entered as follows:

%%Typeout the superscript citation as:-
%%(1) word,\cite{1,2,3} and word.\cite{1,2,3}
%%(2) word\cite{4}: word\cite{4}; word\cite{4}?
References in the text are to be numbered consecutively in Arabic
numerals, in the order of first appearance. They are to be cited as
superscripts without parentheses or brackets after punctuation marks
like commas and periods but before punctuation marks like colons,
semi-colons and question marks. Where superscripts might cause
ambiguity, cite references in parentheses in abbreviated form,
e.g. (Ref.~\refcite{2}).
\bibitem{1} C. M. Wang, J. N. Reddy and K. H. Lee, {\it Shear Deformable
Beams} (Elsevier, Oxford, 2000).
\bibitem{2} R. Loren and D. B. Benson, {\it Introduction to String Field
Theory}, 2nd edn. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999).
\bibitem{3} C. M. Wang (ed.), {\it Shear Deformable Beams}
(Elsevier, Oxford, 2000).

The described solution assumes references are to be given in a \bibitem form directly in the main manuscript. However, in my case, I would prefer to use an external bib file with entries such as the following:

  editor    =   "Fr\'ed\'eric Benhamou and Alain Colmerauer" ,
  title     =   "Constraint {L}ogic {P}rogramming, {S}elected {R}esearch",
  publisher =   "MIT Press",
  year      =   "1993"}

The template already provides such a file (sample.bib) so it should be possible to achieve that. I have already tried to replace the following:




and book{ColBenh:93, with book{1, but cite{1} will only render a question mark. What is the correct solution?

  • The question marks sounds like bibtex has not been run on the file, see this answer. On the command line this means running pdflatex myfile, bibtex myfile, then pdflatex twice. If bibtex is being run, then it should be producing a myfile.blg which may give additional errors to the log file.
    – Dai Bowen
    Mar 18 at 15:08

1 Answer 1


This can actually be done with a little tweaking.

In the preamble insert the line


This will take care of the superscript. To remove the article title from the reference list, this will require doing something like this

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