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I have the highlighted sentence showing up in Overleaf using LaTex using the following text/code:

where $\Phi_2$ corresponds to CDF of the bivariate normal 
distribution with expectation zero, unit variances, and 
correlation coefficient $\rho$$\in$[−1,1] [18]

However, I am getting the error:

LaTeX Error: Unicode character − (U+2212)

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What am I doing wrong? How do I fix the error?

  • Note that if we are using Unicode engine with Unicode fonts then this problem doesn't exists. The minus character U+2212 is present in the Unicode math fonts and in the text fonts too. On the other hand, the syntax $\rho$$\in$[−1,1] is completely wrong. The \in has no spaces around it.
    – wipet
    Feb 11 at 6:47

1 Answer 1


Unicode 2212 is the minus sign - notice that [-1,1] became [1,1] in the output. Delete and retype that character. Also, $\rho$$\in$[−1,1] should be $\rho\in[-1,1]$. And if [18] is a reference, you should be using a better referencing system.


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