# What am I missing in equation alignment with multicols?

I know there are questions related to this one, but I cannot get all to work in this case.

Code:

\documentclass{llncs}

\begin{document}

\begin{multicols}{2}
\noindent
$$Precision = \frac{TP}{TP + FP} \label{evaluation1}$$ \break
$$Recall = \frac{TP}{TP + FN} \label{evaluation2}$$ \break
$$F_1 = 2 \cdot \frac{precision \cdot recall}{ precision + recall} \label{evaluation3}$$
\end{multicols}

\end{document}


Output:

EDIT

I want to set eqaution 1 & 2 on first row. Then equation 3 on second row, like:

equation 1           equation 2

equation 3

• Please tell us what kind of layout you're trying to achieve. (So far, you've mostly shown us what you do not want to achieve.)
– Mico
Commented Mar 2, 2023 at 22:07
• @Mico question editted to add detail about intended layout. Commented Mar 2, 2023 at 23:09

You can use \columbreak to switch over to the right column, and separate your construction into two multicols:

\documentclass{llncs}
\usepackage{lipsum}

\begin{document}

\lipsum[1-3]

\begin{multicols}{2}
\noindent
$$\mathrm{precision} = \frac{TP}{TP + FP}$$ \columnbreak
$$\mathrm{recall} = \frac{TP}{TP + FN}$$
\end{multicols}

\begin{multicols}{2}
$$F_1 = 2 \cdot \frac{\mathrm{precision} \cdot \mathrm{recall}}{ \mathrm{precision} + \mathrm{recall} }$$
\end{multicols}

\lipsum[4-6]

\end{document}


Depending on the equation contents, you may want to adjust the spacing between the multicols.

• Thank you. How can the \vspace be adjusted in this case? Commented Mar 3, 2023 at 10:04
• @AminaUmar: I've reduced it by a combination of \belowdisplayskip (inserted after the equations in the first multicols) and \abovedisplayskip(inserted before the equation in the second multicols). You can add more negative space using \vspace{\dimexpr-\abovedisplayskip-\belowdisplayskip-2ex}, where you change 2ex to suit your needs.
– Werner
Commented Mar 3, 2023 at 17:18

Don't tell anybody I'm using $$. Well, there are cases where it comes handy. \documentclass{llncs} \newenvironment{doubleequations}{%$$
\setlength{\tabcolsep}{0pt}%
\setlength{\abovedisplayskip}{0pt}%
\setlength{\belowdisplayskip}{0pt}%
\setlength{\abovedisplayshortskip}{0pt}%
\setlength{\belowdisplayshortskip}{0pt}%
\begin{tabular}{p{0.5\textwidth}p{0.5\textwidth}}%
}{\end{tabular}$$} \begin{document} text before the equation text before the equation text before the equation text before the equation \begin{doubleequations} $$\label{evaluation1} \mathrm{Precision} = \frac{\mathrm{TP}}{\mathrm{TP} + \mathrm{FP}}$$ & $$\label{evaluation2} \mathrm{Recall} = \frac{\mathrm{TP}}{\mathrm{TP} + \mathrm{FN}}$$ \\[-2ex] $$\label{evaluation3} F_1 = 2\cdot \frac{\mathrm{Precision} \cdot \mathrm{Recall}} {\mathrm{Precision} + \mathrm{Recall}}$$ \end{doubleequations} text after the equation text after the equation text after the equation text after the equation \end{document}  Don't write “words” in math mode without segregating them in \mathrm (or \mathit, if you so prefer). Adjust the [-2ex] spacing to suit yourself. Why $$ and not multicols? Because this will not allow page breaks before the display.