1
\begin{table}[ht]
\centering
\caption{Mapping of kinetic models proposed in the literature for the enzymatic hydrolysis process.}
\begin{tabularx}{\textwidth}{l|l|l|l|c}
\toprule
\textbf{Objective} & \textbf{Model Description} & \textbf{Feedstock} &  \textbf{Results} & \textbf{Reference}\\
\midrule
\makecell[l]{Describe the yield of fermentable sugars, glucose and\\ xylose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.} & \makecell[l]{They developed a kinetic model based on the Michaelis-Menten theory\\ and an enzymatic deactivation model. \\Then, they determined empirical equations for the conversion\\ of glucan to glucose and conversion of xylan to xylose.} & \makecell[l]{Bagasse pre-treated with hot water,\\hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH).} & \makecell[l]{They concluded that the combination of models \\allowed a high precision of fit to the experimental data,\\ for enzymatic hydrolysis by different compositions\\ of pre-treated bagasse, in addition to providing\\ the analysis of the yield in the pre-treatment step.} & \citeonline{ZHANG2021c} \\
\makecell[l]{Describe the enzymatic hydrolysis rate, analyzing\\ the nature and intensity of two pretreatments.} & \makecell{They proposed a kinetic model to analyze the nature\\ and intensity of two pretreatments. Thus,\\ they defined the equation for reaction rate and apparent\\ kinetic constant. Those equation were composed\\ by factors of intensity of pretreatment,\\ the accessibility of the enzyme to the substrate and reactivity.} & \makecell[l]{Wheat straw, corn husk and thistle stalks.\\ These biomasses were pretreated with dilute\\ sulfuric acid and ethanol-water.} & \makecell[l]{They concluded that the kinetic model describes \\the experimental results obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis\\ for the three raw materials used in the study,\\ in different operating conditions.\\ In addition, wheat straw was the most reactive\\ and thistle stalk the most recalcitrance.} & \citeonline{WOJTUSIK2020} \\
\makecell[l]{They developed a kinetic model for\\ the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction in a reactor,\\ considering the fluid dynamics and \\the transport of solids and dissolved species.}  & \makecell[l]{Implementation of equations for fluid transport (substrate and enzyme),\\ equation to determine the substrate concentration;\\ enzyme concentration, taking into account \\the adsorption of the enzyme to cellulose.} & Cellulose substrate. & \makecell[l]{They concluded that the proposed model\\ perfectly predicted the conversion mechanisms \\that occur in enzymatic hydrolysis.\\ In addition, the model provided fidelity\\ to capture the substrate gradients within the reactor.} & \citeonline{SITARAMAN2019c} \\
\makecell[l]{Describe the process of fed-batch hydrolysis\\ for a wide range of solids content.\\ In addition, optimization to determine the\\ operating conditions in the fed-batch \\enzymatic hydrolysis step.} & \makecell[l]{They proposed a kinetic model composed\\ by empirical equations to determine\\ the modified inhibition constant, reaction rate\\ (involves Michaelis-Menten model with product inhibition)\\ and developed mass balances for\\ the concentration of cellulose and glucose.} & \makecell[l]{Hydrothermally pre-treated bagasse (HB)\\ and bagasse pre-treated with \\diluted and delignified acid (ADB).} & \makecell[l]{They observed that the kinetic model fits\\ the experimental data, mainly for the loading\\ of solids 5, 15 and $20\%$ $w.v^{-1}$.\\ Furthermore, it was possible to achieve high sugar\\ levels for both substrates, at 131.24 $g.L^{-1}$ \\for HB and 131.46 $g.L^{-1}$ ADB. \\They also noticed that the reaction yield for the HB substrate\\ decreased from $67.56\%$ to $65-63\%$, \\due to the inhibition of the product.\\ As for the ADB substrate, the yield \\reduced from $66.16\%$ to $55-52\%$.} & \citeonline{GODOY2019} \\
\makecell[l]{Analyzing the saccharification of cellulose\\ to glucose concentration in a novel \\fed-batch horizontal bioreactor.} & \makecell[l]{They used the kinetic model proposed by \citeonline{ZHANG2010},\\ to describe glucose production. Thus, \\they considered in the model cellulase deactivation\\ as first and second order reaction.} & Hydrothermally pre-treated agave bagasse. & \makecell[l]{The model presented a good fit to the experimental data,\\ for a horizontal bioreactor operating in fed-batch.\\ For the experimental test and simulation,\\ the best glucose concentration obtained was the solids load\\ at $25\%$having 195.60 $g.L^{-1}$ of glucose.\\ Working in fed batch, $30\%$ solids load for a horizontal bioreactor,\\ glucose concentrations of approximately\\ 120 $g.L^{-1}$ can be reached.} & \citeonline{PINO2019} \\
\makecell[l]{Show a model applicable for fed-batch hydrolysis,\\ aiming at high substrate concentration.} & \makecell[l]{ It was developed two models, one simplified\\ and one complete model. The simplified\\ model includes only the enzymatic adsorption and \\the first-order reaction of the enzyme-substrate complex.\\ The complete model involves competitive glucose\\ inhibition and decreasing rate factors related \\to substrate and enzyme behavior.} & Filter paper. &\makecell[l]{ The solids concentration ranged from 5 to 50 $g.L^{-1}$. \\In experimental tests, they obtained glucose concentration\\s up to 100 $g.L^{-1}$. On the other hand,\\ for the complete model that presented the best fit,\\ they found results below 40 g.L-1,\\ for an initial solids concentration of 30 $g.L^{-1}$}. & \citeonline{TERVASMAKI2017} \\
\makecell[l]{Describe the enzymatic hydrolysis\\ in high solid concentration.} & \makecell[l]{They used kinetic model by \citeonline{KADAM2004}.\\ The proposed model is based on the biochemistry\\ of enzymatic hydrolysis and includes enzymatic adsorption,\\ product inhibition, substrate reactivity and \\conversion of hemicellulose to xylose. However, it neglects\\ thermal and mechanical enzymatic inactivation.}  & \makecell[l]{Sugarcane straw \\pre-treated with hot water.} &\makecell[l]{The model presented a reasonable fit to\\ the experimental data with solids load of $10-20\%$,\\ enzyme feed between (5-60 $FPU.g^{-1}$),\\ being possible to obtain glucose concentrations up to\\ approximately 110 $g.L^{-1}$.} & \citeonline{ANGARITA2015} \\
\makecell[l]{They developed a dynamic model for the simultaneous\\ feeding of substrate and enzyme, with the purpose of \\reaching high concentrations of glucose, in the process of \\enzymatic hydrolysis in a reactor operating in fed batch.} &\makecell[l]{They determined the mass balances for volume,\\ substrate and product. In addition, they\\ considered the equation for the reaction rate,\\ from the Michaelis-Menten equation with inhibition\\ by the product (glucose). They proposed\\ an equation for substrate and enzyme feeding.}  &\makecell{Bagasse pre-treated by steam explosion \\and delignified with $4\%$ NaOH.} & \makecell[l]{ From the simulation, it was noticed\\ that it was necessary to feed in three pulses\\ of enzyme for the analyzed system.\\ Furthermore, it was possible to reach\\ glucose concentrations of 160 $g.L^{-1}$ and,\\ in the experimental tests for model validation,\\ product concentration of 200 $g.L^{-1}$.} & \citeonline{CAVALCANTI-MONTAÑO2013} \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabularx}
\end{table}%

I need to place a table in order to divide two columns into pages, so that it can appear whole.

3
  • Please provide MWE (Minimal Working Example), a small bit complete document, which we can compiles it is. and which reproduce your problem. Describe what is your problem.
    – Zarko
    Aug 24, 2023 at 17:19
  • 1
    IMHO tabularx make sense only if at least one X-column is used.
    – cabohah
    Aug 25, 2023 at 6:11
  • 1
    I don't quite understand "in order to divide two columns into pages". Do you mean that you have a two column document, and would like the table to span both columns? Or do you mean something else?
    – Teepeemm
    Aug 25, 2023 at 18:25

1 Answer 1

2

My main recommendation would be to typeset the table in landscape mode. Second, do employ an xltabular environment, which combines the capabilities of the tabularx (to allow automatic line breaking and an overall target width) and longtable environments (which can span more than one page); this will also let you get rid of all \makecell "wrappers". Third, do also get rid of all vertical lines and most horizontal lines; whitespace can be just as effective as black lines can be for the purpose of generating visual separators.

These suggestions are pursued in the code posted below. Assuming the document employs margins that are 1 inch wide, it's possible to typeset the full table across just 2 pages.

An explanation of L{0.7} L{1.3} L{0.5} L{1.5} in the line

\begin{xltabular}{9in}{@{} L{0.7} L{1.3} L{0.5} L{1.5} c @{}}

may be in order. First, the L column type is defined in the preamble as a variant of the X column type which (a) doesn't impose full justification and (b) allows to variable widths (using the syntax provided by the tabularx package, which is carried over to the xltabular package). Second, the numbers 0.7, 1.3, 0.5, and 1.5 denote a relative measure of the usable widths of the four columns; it's "relative" in the sense that the numbers sum to 4, which is the number of X-type columns. As a result, the usable width of column 4 is three times that of column 3. I arrived at these (relative) width by trial and error or, if you prefer, by casual empiricism. :-)

enter image description here

enter image description here

\documentclass{article}
\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
\usepackage[english]{babel}
\usepackage[letterpaper,margin=1in]{geometry} % set page parameters as needed
\usepackage{pdflscape,xltabular,ragged2e,booktabs}
\newcolumntype{L}[1]{>{\RaggedRight\hsize=#1\hsize}X} % variable-width X-type col.

\usepackage{siunitx} % for \unit and \qty macros
\usepackage{mhchem}  % for \ce macro

\providecommand\citeonline[1]{xyz} % no idea how this macro should be defined

\begin{document}

\begin{landscape}
\setlength\tabcolsep{4pt} % default: 6pt
\setlength\LTcapwidth{9in} 

% How to obtain the width of the text block (cf 1st arg. of 'xltabular' env.)
% - Letter paper, margins 1in: 11in - 2*1in = 9in (228.6mm)
% - A4 paper, margins 2.5cm: 297mm - 2*25mm = 247mm

\begin{xltabular}{9in}{@{} L{0.7} L{1.3} L{0.5} L{1.5} c @{}}

\caption{Mapping of kinetic models proposed in the literature for the enzymatic hydrolysis process.} \label{tab:mappings}\\
\toprule
Objective & Model Description & Feedstock & Results & Ref. \\
\midrule
\endfirsthead

\multicolumn{5}{@{}l}{Table \thetable, continued.}\\[1ex]
\toprule
Objective & Model Description & Feedstock & Results & Ref. \\
\midrule
\endhead

\midrule
\multicolumn{5}{r@{}}{\footnotesize (continued on next page)}\\
\endfoot

\bottomrule
\endlastfoot

Describe the yield of fermentable sugars, glucose and xylose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. & They developed a kinetic model based on the Michaelis-Menten theory and an enzymatic deactivation model. Then, they determined empirical equations for the conversion of glucan to glucose and conversion of xylan to xylose. & Bagasse pre-treated with hot water,hydrochloric acid (\ce{HCl}) and sodium hydroxide (\ce{NaOH}). & They concluded that the combination of models allowed a high precision of fit to the experimental data, for enzymatic hydrolysis by different compositions of pre-treated bagasse, in addition to providing the analysis of the yield in the pre-treatment step. & \citeonline{ZHANG2021c} \\ 
\addlinespace

Describe the enzymatic hydrolysis rate, analyzing the nature and intensity of two pretreatments. & They proposed a kinetic model to analyze the nature and intensity of two pretreatments. Thus, they defined the equation for reaction rate and apparent kinetic constant. Those equation were composed by factors of intensity of pretreatment, the accessibility of the enzyme to the substrate and reactivity. & Wheat straw, corn husk and thistle stalks. These biomasses were pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid and ethanol-water. & They concluded that the kinetic model describes the experimental results obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis for the three raw materials used in the study, in different operating conditions. In addition, wheat straw was the most reactive and thistle stalk the most recalcitrance. & \citeonline{WOJTUSIK2020} \\ 
\addlinespace

They developed a kinetic model for the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction in a reactor, considering the fluid dynamics and the transport of solids and dissolved species. &  Implementation of equations for fluid transport (substrate and enzyme), equation to determine the substrate concentration; enzyme concentration, taking into account the adsorption of the enzyme to cellulose. & Cellulose substrate. & They concluded that the proposed model perfectly predicted the conversion mechanisms that occur in enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, the model provided fidelity to capture the substrate gradients within the reactor. & \citeonline{SITARAMAN2019c} \\ 
\addlinespace

Describe the process of fed-batch hydrolysis for a wide range of solids content. In addition, optimization to determine the operating conditions in the fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis step. & They proposed a kinetic model composed by empirical equations to determine the modified inhibition constant, reaction rate (involves Michaelis-Menten model with product inhibition) and developed mass balances for the concentration of cellulose and glucose. & Hydrothermally pre-treated bagasse (HB) and bagasse pre-treated with diluted and delignified acid (ADB). & They observed that the kinetic model fits the experimental data, mainly for the loading of solids 5, 15 and 20\% $w\cdot v^{-1}$. Furthermore, it was possible to achieve high sugar levels for both substrates, at \qty{131.24}{\gram\per\litre} for HB and \qty{131.46}{\gram\per\litre} ADB. They also noticed that the reaction yield for the HB substrate decreased from 67.56\% to 65--63\%, due to the inhibition of the product. As for the ADB substrate, the yield reduced from 66.16\% to 55--52\%. & \citeonline{GODOY2019} \\ 
%\addlinespace

Analyzing the saccharification of cellulose to glucose concentration in a novel fed-batch horizontal bioreactor. & They used the kinetic model proposed by \citeonline{ZHANG2010}, to describe glucose production. Thus, they considered in the model cellulase deactivation as first and second order reaction. & Hydrothermally pre-treated agave bagasse. & The model presented a good fit to the experimental data, for a horizontal bioreactor operating in fed-batch. For the experimental test and simulation, the best glucose concentration obtained was the solids load at 25\% having \qty{195.60}{\gram\per\litre} of glucose. Working in fed batch, 30\% solids load for a horizontal bioreactor, glucose concentrations of approximately \qty{120}{\gram\per\litre} can be reached. & \citeonline{PINO2019} \\ 
\addlinespace

Show a model applicable for fed-batch hydrolysis, aiming at high substrate concentration. &  It was developed two models, one simplified and one complete model. The simplified model includes only the enzymatic adsorption and the first-order reaction of the enzyme-substrate complex. The complete model involves competitive glucose inhibition and decreasing rate factors related to substrate and enzyme behavior. & Filter paper. & The solids concentration ranged from 5 to 50 \unit{\gram\per\litre}. In experimental tests, they obtained glucose concentrations up to \qty{100}{\gram\per\litre}. On the other hand, for the complete model that presented the best fit, they found results below \qty{40}{\gram\per\litre}, for an initial solids concentration of \qty{30}{\gram\per\litre}. & \citeonline{TERVASMAKI2017} \\ 
\addlinespace

Describe the enzymatic hydrolysis in high solid concentration. & They used kinetic model by \citeonline{KADAM2004}. The proposed model is based on the biochemistry of enzymatic hydrolysis and includes enzymatic adsorption, product inhibition, substrate reactivity and conversion of hemicellulose to xylose. However, it neglects thermal and mechanical enzymatic inactivation. &  Sugarcane straw pre-treated with hot water. & The model presented a reasonable fit to the experimental data with solids load of 10--20\%, enzyme feed between 5 and 60 \unit{FPU\gram\tothe{-1}}, being possible to obtain glucose concentrations up to approximately \qty{110}{\gram\per\litre}. & \citeonline{ANGARITA2015} \\ 
\addlinespace

They developed a dynamic model for the simultaneous feeding of substrate and enzyme, with the purpose of reaching high concentrations of glucose, in the process of enzymatic hydrolysis in a reactor operating in fed batch. & They determined the mass balances for volume, substrate and product. In addition, they considered the equation for the reaction rate, from the Michaelis-Menten equation with inhibition by the product (glucose). They proposed an equation for substrate and enzyme feeding. & Bagasse pre-treated by steam explosion and delignified with 4\%~\ce{NaOH}. & From the simulation, it was noticed that it was necessary to feed in three pulses of enzyme for the analyzed system. Furthermore, it was possible to reach glucose concentrations of \qty{160}{\gram\per\litre} and, in the experimental tests for model validation, product concentration of \qty{200}{\gram\per\litre}. & \citeonline{CAVALCANTI-MONTAÑO2013} \\

\end{xltabular}
\end{landscape}

\end{document}
0

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .