4

I'm compiling a set of equations in a poster, where I want to use \vdots to indicate a continuation, the code is as follows:

\documentclass[portrait,a0b,final]{a0poster}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts}
\usepackage{mathtools}

\begin{itemize}
    \item \emph{Calculation of Steady State with Successive Transition Matrices}
        \begin{itemize}
            \item Starting with the matrix power averaging technique, the time inhomogeneous steady state can be determined by the following steps:
        \end{itemize}
        \begin{align*}
            P\,(\tau) &= T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(2\tau) &= T_{2} \, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(3\tau) &= T_{3}\, T_{2}\, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \shortvdotswithin{=}
        \end{align*}
\end{itemize} 
\end{document}

But the compiled version looks so small and squished:

equations

How to fix this, so that they are spaced out longer, and also a bigger dot size?

2
  • Where is \shortvdots defined? From te "short", I would assume that they'd be squished. Please extend your code to be compilable, starting with \documentclass and ending with \end{document} and including only the packages necessary to obtain the questioned output. Apr 8 at 1:32
  • @barbarabeeton sorry for the mistake, I've fixed it now. But even when I use \vdotswithin, nothing changes in the format.
    – magg13__
    Apr 8 at 2:02

2 Answers 2

3

The original definition of \vdots:

\vbox {\baselineskip 4\p@ \lineskiplimit \z@ \kern 6\p@ \hbox {.}\hbox {.}\hbox {.}}

uses the normal full stop (see the arguments of the \hbox commands).

If you want all \vdots to be larger and with more vertical space, you can redefine it, e.g., using:

\documentclass[portrait,a0b,final]{a0poster}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts}
\usepackage{mathtools}
\makeatletter
\DeclareRobustCommand{%
  \vdots}{\vbox {\huge\baselineskip 12\p@ \lineskiplimit \z@ \kern 6\p@
    \hbox {.}\hbox {.}\hbox {.}}%
}
\makeatother
\begin{document}
\begin{itemize}
    \item \emph{Calculation of Steady State with Successive Transition Matrices}
        \begin{itemize}
            \item Starting with the matrix power averaging technique, the time inhomogeneous steady state can be determined by the following steps:
        \end{itemize}
        \begin{align*}
            P\,(\tau) &= T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(2\tau) &= T_{2} \, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(3\tau) &= T_{3}\, T_{2}\, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            &\shortvdotswithin{=}
        \end{align*}
\end{itemize} 
\end{document}

Instead of using \huge you can also replace the . by everything you want, e.g., $\bullet$ (but IMHO $\bullet$ is too much).

Alternatively to redefining \vdots you can also define new versions of \vdotswithin and \shortvdotswithin:

\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts}
\usepackage{mathtools}
\makeatletter
\DeclareRobustCommand\hugevdots{%
  \vbox {\huge\baselineskip 12\p@ \lineskiplimit \z@ \kern 6\p@
    \hbox {.}\hbox {.}\hbox {.}}%
}
\newcommand\hugevdotswithin[1]{%
  {\mathmakebox[\widthof{\ensuremath{{}#1{}}}][c]{{\hugevdots}}}}
\ExplSyntaxOn
\def\shorthugevdotswithin{\relax
  \@ifstar{\MT_svwi_aux_huge:nn{00}}{\MT_svwi_aux_huge:nn{01}}}
\def\MT_svwi_aux_huge:nn #1#2{
  \MTFlushSpaceAbove
  \if#1 \hugevdotswithin{#2}& \else &\hugevdotswithin{#2}  \fi
  \MTFlushSpaceBelow
}
\ExplSyntaxOff
\makeatother
\begin{document}
\begin{itemize}
    \item \emph{Calculation of Steady State with Successive Transition Matrices}
        \begin{itemize}
            \item Starting with the matrix power averaging technique, the time inhomogeneous steady state can be determined by the following steps:
        \end{itemize}
        \begin{align*}
            P\,(\tau) &= T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(2\tau) &= T_{2} \, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            \\
            P\,(3\tau) &= T_{3}\, T_{2}\, T_{1} \, P(0) \\
            &\shorthugevdotswithin{=}
        \end{align*}
\end{itemize} 
\end{document}

Both examples result in:

enter image description here

If needed you can also increase the \kern value to increase the space above the first dot or add an additional \kern after the last \hbox{…} to increase the space below.

1

I believe you only need to fix \vdots so it takes into account the current font size.

\documentclass[portrait,a0b,final]{a0poster}
\usepackage{amsmath,amssymb,amsfonts}
\usepackage{mathtools}

\makeatletter
\renewcommand{\vdots}{%
  \vbox{%
    \baselineskip \fpeval{0.3*\f@baselineskip}\p@
    \lineskiplimit\z@
    \kern\fpeval{0.5*\f@baselineskip}\p@
    \hbox{.}\hbox{.}\hbox{.}%
  }%
}
\makeatother

\begin{document}

\begin{align*}
 P(\tau) &= T_{1} \, P(0) \\
 \\
 P(2\tau) &= T_{2} T_{1} \, P(0) \\
 \\
 P(3\tau) &= T_{3} T_{2} T_{1} \, P(0) \\
 \shortvdotswithin{=} 
 P(n\tau) &= T_{n} \dotsm T_{1} \, P(0)
\end{align*}

\end{document}

The problem is that the standard \vdots uses fixed dimensions.

I removed a lot of misplaced \, tokens.

enter image description here

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