In a paper I am writing to IEEE journal, I need to mention the parameters like $a$, $b$, $c$ in section titles, but when I run LaTeX (in IEEE style file), they are coming out capitalized. I wish to avoid them looking like $A$, $B$, $C$ as output.

Can you solve this problem?!

I used

\subsection{Parameter $a$ varying}
  • 3
    Indeed it would be necessary to know which style file you use. I tried to reproduce with the MWE \documentclass{IEEEtran} \begin{document} \section{Parameter $a$ varying} \end{document} but this works fine (the a is lower case), so either it is not IEEEtran or it is but you use additional packages or settings that modify the appearance of section titles.
    – Marijn
    Commented May 24 at 9:33
  • 1
    Also with \subsection it looks fine in my MWE in my comment above. Please add a similar complete document to your question that shows the issue.
    – Marijn
    Commented May 24 at 9:36
  • 1
    Please see the second link in my first comment, so we would not need to guess any longer and also not need to search essential information in comments.
    – cabohah
    Commented May 24 at 9:37
  • 1
    Why make people guess what document class you are using, and change the question in comments???? Make a complete document that shows the problem (like the one in the posted answer) Commented May 24 at 9:38
  • 1
    @David I can reproduce with \documentclass{ieeeaccess} \usepackage{graphicx} \begin{document} \section{Parameter $a$ varying} \subsection{Parameter $b$ varying} \EOD \end{document} and the class from template-selector.ieee.org/secure/templateSelector/….
    – Marijn
    Commented May 24 at 9:44

2 Answers 2


enter image description here

IEEEtran uses \MakeUpperCase and unless you hve an old version of latex, that automatically skips over inline math.




\section{Parameter $a$ varying}


Note the a is lowercase in the uppercase heading.


The ieeeaccess class from


is completely broken, it requires (but doesn't load) graphicx and it uses \uppercase directly which doesn't skip math and would break any UTF-8 non ASCII characters.

This is a quick fix

enter image description here

\usepackage{graphicx}% needed grrr

\def\section{\@startsection{section}{1}{1pt}{-1pc plus -1pt minus -1pt}%
\def\subsection{\@startsection{subsection}{2}{1pt}{-1pc plus -1pt minus -1pt}%


\section{Parameter $a$ varying}
\subsection{Parameter $a$ varying in subsection}


You should report this to IEEE


Friends, I solved the problem with the help of the package


in the preamble.

For the subsection title, I used..

\subsection{Varying the parameter \lowercase{a}}

This works very well and the parameter 'a' comes in bold font as well.

I am sharing this solution as kind info. Thank you!

  • 2
    But now your a is no longer math.
    – Teepeemm
    Commented May 24 at 14:59
  • I tested with $a$ and the letter 'a'. The output is better without math and it comes good in bold font. So I retaining the command as \lowercase{a} and not \lowercase{$a$}. Both work, I tested.. Thanks!
    – Dr. Sundar
    Commented May 24 at 15:15
  • this is really bad advice, the a is no longer math and \lowercase like the \uppercase used by the class should never be used in latex, it will break any non ascii text. Commented May 24 at 15:17
  • also what has the soul package got to do with this? it is completely unrelated to the rest of your answer. Commented May 24 at 15:18

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