# German APA reference: origyear field is incomplete (needs reprinttitle)

I use LuaTeX, BibLaTeX and biber with APA bibliography style. The German version has the origyear field wrong.

The original english APA version wants it like this:

Author (Year). Title. Location: Publisher. (Original work published original year)

The German version is the same, just "Original work published is replaced by "Original erschienen" which is fine. But according to the adjusted version by the German DGP the rest should look like this:

Author (Year). Title. Location: Publisher. (Original erschienen original year: original title)

But we can't even use the origtitle field and just move it around. Because the origtitle field is a field for the title when the title field is already used for a self-made translation of the title. Imagine the following case:

Smith, A. (1990). L'amour [Die Liebe]. Paris: Alfons. (Original erschienen 1988: Love).

So we have a French translation of an originally English book and we give a German translation so everybody understands it. title field is for our translation "Die Liebe", origtitle is for the title of the translated work "L'amour" so we need another field for the title of the original work "Love". This can't be appended to origyear because we need origyear seperately when we cite it like this: Smith (1988/1990).

We would need something like a origwork field which is appended to the origyear and also very flexible because if the original work has slightly different authors (what the heck??) DGP turns it into:

Zimbardo, P. G. & Gerrig, R. J. (2004). ... (Original erschienen 2002 als Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo, P. G., Psychology and life)

And DGP is also a little inconsistent. There can be found:

(Original erschienen 1988: Love)

and

(Original erschienen 1988, Love)

Anyway, does anybody know how to implement this in the german-apa.lbx? I wouldn't even know where to start ...

EDIT:

Thanks alot Guido, that's almost what I need.

It's a little bit messed up though. This shifts everything around. There is no need for that. title, subtitle and origtitle should stay in place. We just need an additional field. We can't use titleaddon for that because this is put in square brackets (we couldn't use title/subtitle either because it's in italics but shouldn't be if used as title of an original work). We would just need another field origwork.

Here is what I got so far:

\documentclass{scrbook}
\usepackage[american,english,ngerman]{babel}
\usepackage[style=apa,backend=biber,bibencoding=utf8,babel=other]{biblatex}
\usepackage[autopunct=true,autostyle=true,german=guillemets,english=american]{csquotes}
\bibliography{test.bib}
\DeclareLanguageMapping{american}{american-apa}
\DeclareLanguageMapping{ngerman}{ngerman-apa}

\begin{filecontents}{biblatex-dm.cfg}
\DeclareDatamodelFields[type=list, datatype=name,skipout=false]{origauthor}
\DeclareDatamodelEntryfields{origauthor}
\DeclareDatamodelFields[type=field, datatype=literal,skipout=false]{origwork}
\DeclareDatamodelEntryfields{origwork}
\end{filecontents}

\DeclareFieldFormat{origyear}{%
\mkbibparens{\bibcpstring{origyear}~\thefield{origyear}%
\ifnameundef{origauthor}
{}
\iffieldundef{origwork}
{}%
{\ifnameundef{origauthor}
\printfield{origwork}}}%
}

\renewbibmacro*{origyear}{%
\ifthenelse{
\NOT\iffieldsequal{labelyear}{origdateyear}
\OR
\NOT\iffieldsequal{title}{origwork}
\OR
\NOT\ifnamesequal{author}{origauthor}
}
{\printfield{origyear}}
{}%
}

\begin{document}
\textcite{testentry}
\printbibliography
\end{document}


test.bib:

@BOOK{testentry,
title = {Die Liebe},
origtitle = {L'amour},
location = {Paris},
publisher = {Alfons},
date = {1994},
origdate = {1988},
origwork = {Love},
hyphenation = {ngerman},
}


EDIT 2:

I see now, you have turned everything upside down so it fits its semantic purpose. And biblatex-apa is a little inconsistent using title for title but using origtitle for title if there is a selfmade translation which is filled in as title. Anyway this is what everyone is using right now. We can just add up missing pieces using unused fields. Here is my try with reprinttitle:

\documentclass{scrbook}
\usepackage[american,english,ngerman]{babel}
\usepackage[style=apa,backend=biber,bibencoding=utf8,babel=other]{biblatex}
\usepackage[autopunct=true,autostyle=true,german=guillemets,english=american]{csquotes}
\bibliography{test.bib}
\DeclareLanguageMapping{american}{american-apa}
\DeclareLanguageMapping{ngerman}{ngerman-apa}

\DeclareFieldFormat{origyear}{%
\mkbibparens{\bibcpstring{origyear}~\thefield{origyear}%
\ifnameundef{origauthor}
{}
\iffieldundef{reprinttitle}
{}%
{\ifnameundef{origauthor}
\printfield{reprinttitle}}}%
}

\renewbibmacro*{origyear}{%
\ifthenelse{
\NOT\iffieldsequal{labelyear}{origdateyear}
\OR
\NOT\iffieldsequal{title}{reprinttitle}
\OR
\NOT\ifnamesequal{author}{origauthor}
}
{\printfield{origyear}}
{}%
}

\begin{document}
\textcite{testentry}
\printbibliography
\end{document}


test.bib:

@BOOK{testentry,
title = {Die Liebe},
subtitle = {in all ihren Formen},
origtitle = {L'amour},
location = {Paris},
publisher = {Alfons},
date = {1994},
origdate = {1988},
reprinttitle = {Love},
hyphenation = {ngerman},
}


Now it looks like:

Smith, A. (1994). L'amour [Die Liebe: in all ihren Formen] [Special issue]. Paris: Alfons. (Original erschienen 1988 als Smith, A., Love).

Things to do: "als" would also need to be a key that is "als" in a German bibliography and "as" in an English bibliography. The author's name is Surname, F. but should be F. Surname. I would be glad if you could elaborate on that.

• Related: my question biblatex conditional for printing an extradate See answer by PLK. – hpesoj626 Oct 19 '12 at 7:01
• I don't see the reason why titleaddon is not appropriate. According to the specs you gave, what you called origintitle (Die Liebe) was enclosed in brackets. Also the schema you are using is confusing. If you use the .bib with another style, you will get wrong information. In addition it is very easy to change how titleaddon is rendered. i.e., \DeclareFieldFormat{titleaddon}{\MakeSentenceCase*{#1}}. – Guido Oct 21 '12 at 22:28
• titleaddon can't be used because it's already in use in apa style for declaring additional information concerning the medium (special issue, brochure, CD, monograph, editorial, abstract). E.g. it could be filled with "Special issue" in case we are dealing with a French translation of an English journal article published in a special issue of a French journal. I've seen this rarely but it exists. – Psychic Birdy Oct 22 '12 at 18:34
• Ok, for titleaddon though I still think that what you want is part of such information (and as far as I can see, the original spa style handles original only for books). Part of my problem is, if I have understood properly your narrative, that in your .bib, title is not the title but the translation of it. I would use author, title for the main entry, origauthor, origtitle and introduce a new field for the extra information, e.g., extratitleinfo. The next issue is how to render it and its position. – Guido Oct 22 '12 at 19:25
• Well, title is not just used for the translation of the title in my .bib but in anyone's .bib if using biblatex-apa. - But only if there is a need for a selfmade translation. In this case title moves from the title field to the origtitle field. See e.g. in biblatex-apa-test.pdf 7.01:4 and corresponding entry in file biblatex-apa-test-references.bib which are part of the doc. So origtitle and titleaddon are both already in use by apa style - I would be fine with a new field extratitleinfo but also with a reused field reprinttitle which isn't used yet by that style. – Psychic Birdy Oct 22 '12 at 19:45

For the original question, the modification required is:

\renewbibmacro*{title}{%
\ifthenelse{\iffieldundef{title}\AND\iffieldundef{subtitle}}
{}
{\printtext[title]{%
\printfield[apacase]{title}%
\setunit{\subtitlepunct}%
\printfield[apacase]{subtitle}}%
\iffieldequalstr{entrytype}{book}%
{}%
\ifthenelse{%
\ifnameundef{author}\AND%
$$\ifnameundef{editor}\AND\NOT\boolean{bbx:editorinauthpos}$$\AND%
\ifnameundef{producer}\AND%
\ifnameundef{director}\AND%
\ifnameundef{writer}}
{\newunit\newblock
\usebibmacro{labelyear+extrayear}}
{}}}

\DeclareFieldFormat{origyear}{%
\mkbibparenss{\bibcpstring{origyear}~\thefield{origyear}%
\iffieldundef{origtitle}
{}%
}

\newbibmacro*{origyear}{%
\ifthenelse{
\NOT\iffieldundef{labelyear}
\AND\NOT\iffieldsequal{labelyear}{origyear}
\OR
\NOT\iffieldsequal{title}{origtitle}}
{\printfield{origyear}}
{}%
}

\DefineBibliographyStrings{german}{%
origyear = {Original erschienen}
}


This can be inserted in the preamble of your document.

For the extended version one has either to introduce new fields (this can be done,by modifying the data model, or by using the BibLaTeX facilities for related).

EDIT 1 and EDIT 2 To accommodate the case where the author of the original publication is different the first step is to modify the data model, this can be done with:

\begin{filecontents}{biblatex-dm.cfg}
\DeclareDatamodelFields[type=list, datatype=name,skipout=false]{origauthor}
\DeclareDatamodelEntryfields{origauthor}
\end{filecontents}


This generates a file called biblatex-dm.cfg in the current directory with the instruction about how to extend BibLaTeX data model.

Notice that BibLaTeX provides a titleaddon field and this could be used to the extra information for the title ("Die Liebe" in the OP).

Eventually, one could add a field titletranslation for the selfmade translation, i.e., one can include the following two lines in the datamodel file.

\DeclareDatamodelField[type=field, datatype=literal,skipout=false]{titletranslation}
\DeclareDatamodelEntryfields{titletranslation}


Another possibility is to use an "unused" field, for example, reprinttitle. In what follow I'm going to use this option.

The next step is to modify the appropriate bibmacros. In this case, title and origyear for the formatting of the title (and related information about the original publication)

\renewbibmacro*{title}{%
\ifthenelse{\iffieldundef{title}\AND\iffieldundef{subtitle}}
{}
{\printtext[title]{%
\printfield[apacase]{title}%
\setunit{\subtitlepunct}%
\printfield[apacase]{subtitle}}%
\printfield{reprinttitle}%
\iffieldequalstr{entrytype}{book}%
{}%
\ifthenelse{%
\ifnameundef{author}\AND%
$$\ifnameundef{editor}\AND\NOT\boolean{bbx:editorinauthpos}$$\AND%
\ifnameundef{producer}\AND%
\ifnameundef{director}\AND%
\ifnameundef{writer}}
{\newunit\newblock
\usebibmacro{labelyear+extrayear}}
{}}}


For originyear the first thing to do is to define the format. To this we check that originauthor is defined, and we set the punctuation accordingly:

\DeclareFieldFormat{origyear}{%
\mkbibparens{\bibcpstring{origyear}~\thefield{origyear}%
\ifnameundef{origauthor}
{}
\iffieldundef{origtitle}
{}%
{\ifnameundef{origauthor}
\printfield{origtitle}}}%
}


Then we have to consider the cases when we have to output the information about the original publication (here the condition is that either the year, or the title, or the author(s) is different).

\renewbibmacro*{origyear}{%
\ifthenelse{
\NOT\iffieldsequal{labelyear}{origdateyear}
\OR
\NOT\iffieldsequal{title}{origtitle}
\OR
\NOT\ifnamesequal{author}{origauthor}
}
{\printfield{origyear}}
{}%
}


Caveat A problem with the above solution is that not all bib entry types include instructions to format the information about the original publication using the above method. A more robust technique would be to use the facilities provided by BibLaTeX to handle related publications.

The last step is to use the appropriate value for the localisation strings origyear and as.

\NewBibliographyString{origyear,as}
\DefineBibliographyStrings{ngerman}{%
origyear = {Original erschienen},
as = {als}
}

\DefineBibliographyStrings{american}{%
as = {as}
}


Finally, to change the rendering of names, we have to modify the formatting instructions for apaauthor

\DeclareNameFormat{FirstLast}{%
\ifthenelse{\value{listcount}=\maxprtauth\AND\value{listcount}<\value{listtotal}}

• Thanks alot for your reply. I'm sorry, I made a mistake. There is a year field but if there are year and original year this changes to date and origdate. I replaced origyear with origdate in your code but this won't work. I'm also still interested in a solution with a new field. – Psychic Birdy Oct 19 '12 at 10:53
• I looked into the biblatex manual and we could use reprinttitle. It's actually meant to be used for the new title of a reprint (or let's say a translation) but we could also use it for the title of the original work the translation is based on. I adjusted the example in my question accordingly. Things still to do are: A key that is "als" in a German bibliography and "as" in an English bibliography. The author's name is Surname, F. but should be F. Surname. – Psychic Birdy Oct 22 '12 at 18:56
• Thanks alot, the 2nd edit is almost it. But the name order is still wrong. APA (and DGP) wants order of names to look like this depending on the position: Surname, F. (2000). Title. In F. Surname, Title (pp. 1-4). Location: Publisher. (Originally published 1999 as F. Surname, Title) - Now it looks like this: F. Surname (2000). ... (Originally published 1999 as Surname, F., Title) - So we need only a modification of the order of origauthor names. – Psychic Birdy Oct 22 '12 at 22:30
• @PsychicBirdy changed [author] to [apaauthor] in \printname[apaauthor]{origauthor}. – Guido Oct 22 '12 at 22:51
• Now its: F. Surname (2000). ... (Originally published 1999 as F. Surname, Title) - But it should be: Surname, F. (2000). ... (Originally published 1999 as F. Surname, Title) – Psychic Birdy Oct 23 '12 at 21:27