I want to use math symbols including underline (e.g. $\underline{R}_{H,V}$) in a section title in a document in amsart documentclass with table of contents. So I typed (roughly)


\section{The functor ${\underline{R}}_{H,V}$}


If I compile this file, I get the section title as wanted, but without the underline in the table of contents. If I compile once more, I get the following error message:

Missing } inserted
...elax }_{H,V}$ 

I checked this site and found advices suggesting to use sectsty or titlesec packages. But they seem to be useful only when you want to underline the whole section title in article documentclass. Can anybody help?

1 Answer 1


since \section has a "floating" argument, what i'd try first is \protect\underline.

absence of \protect is a very frequent cause of the missing } error for chapter and section titles and captions, and not just with ams document classes.

  • Wow, \proctect command solved the problem. Thank you very much! Oct 30, 2012 at 15:19

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