BibTeX works, but I want footnote citations, so I need biblatex. However, I'm having problems getting it to work. My MWE is testbib.tex:

Hello \cite{KandR}. How are you?

and sources.bib:

   AUTHOR  = "Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M.",
   TITLE   = "{The C Programming Language Second Edition}",
   PUBLISHER = "Prentice-Hall, Inc.",
   YEAR = "1988"

When I latex testbib.tex, I get several Warnings (but no errors):

  1. No "backend" specified, using Biber backend.
  2. Citation 'KandR' undefined
  3. Empty bibliography
  4. There were undefined references
  5. Please (re)run Biber on the file:(biblatex) testbib(biblatex)

I then run BibTeX on testbix.aux file and get three error messages:

  1. I found no \citation commands
  2. I found no \bibdata command
  3. I found no \bibstyle command

and then "Process exited normally".

I return to my original file, latex in twice, and get the same Warnings. The output is the text plus [KandR ], without any bibliography.

I am using Texmaker 3.3.3, MiKTeX 2.9 64-bit and Windows 7 64-bit. Can anyone please help me to get this working? I have an idea or two: should I really Bibtex the .aux file, or Biblatex it? Also, I do not have a file resembling biblatex in my \miktex\bin\x64 folder, although I do have a bunch of .tpm biblatex files in \tpm\packages. Lastly, I haven't yet found where I can use the command line in TeXmaker (I am doing the existing commands through Tools). So if you need me to enter a command other than latex or bibtex (maybe biber), please tell me where the command line is.

  • 2
    Since version 2, biblatex uses Biber instead of BibTeX as default backend. So, replace running bibtex testbib.aux with biber testbib (without .aux). (This assumes you have an up-to-date TeX distribution which includes Biber.)
    – lockstep
    Nov 17, 2012 at 19:36
  • ...or, if you don't want to switch to biber, use [backend=bibtex]
    – Count Zero
    Nov 17, 2012 at 19:39

1 Answer 1


The following MWE (including your bib file, a few minor changes to yours) should run on your system without errors and only one correct warning: overwriting file \jobname.bib (that tells you that file \jobname.bib has been rewritten. \jobname is changend to the name of your texfile. for example test. You have to run: pdflatex test.tex, bibtex test, pdflatex test.tex, pdflatex test.tex).

  AUTHOR    = {Kernighan, Brian W. and Ritchie, Dennis M.},
  TITLE     = {{The C Programming Language Second Edition}},
  PUBLISHER = {Prentice-Hall, Inc.},
  YEAR      = {1988},

  backend=bibtex   % use BibTeX
% backend=biber    % Use biber
Hello \cite{KandR}. How are you?

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