Possible Duplicate:
Show inline math as if it were display math

Whenever I try to get something below the product character, it actually puts it next to it.

The recommended code to do this is \prod_{n=1}, but contrary to the example, for me, it looks more like Nn=1 than actually below the prod character.

It does not mention a specific package though.

How can I do this?

  • You are probably in inline math mode $\prod_n$ try display math \[\prod_n\] or if you want that form inline $\displaystyle\prod_n$ Dec 1, 2012 at 12:11
  • \Prod doesn't even exist for me. If you use \prod may be you are not in display math. If you use $\prod_{n=1}$ it will show as you said. If you use \[ \prod_{n=1} \] or $\displaymath \prod_{n=1}$ it should work. May be a little bit late...
    – Manuel
    Dec 1, 2012 at 12:13
  • 2
    If you want to badly spoil your document, use $\prod\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}...$. If you want to have a preposterously horrible document, use $\displaystyle\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}$
    – egreg
    Dec 1, 2012 at 12:16
  • 2
    In the question's title, you mention \Pi as a possibility for creating a product symbol. Don't do it! Be sure to use the command \prod instead (with \limits if you absolutely have to set index of multiplication below the symbol).
    – Mico
    Dec 1, 2012 at 12:21
  • @Mico Thanks. egreg, I don't see the problem with the \limits method. Dec 1, 2012 at 12:51

1 Answer 1


In textstyle the limits (the n=1 in that case) are pushed to the right of the operator, while in displaystyle it is above and below.

The style used to display the formula depends on where it is in the text (inline in text or in an equation-like environment), and where it is in the formula (for example, in matrices or fractions, the subformulas are in text style by default).

In any case, you can use {\displaystyle \prod_{n=1}^{\infinity} a_n} to locally force the display style. Do it at your own risks, as the formula will become much taller, and is likely to break the appearance of your paragraph.

If you'd prefer a compromise, you can use the \limits command to force the limits to be placed above and below the operator, without changing the operator size (which \displaystyle does). Beware, even if the operator isn't resized, the limits will still enlarge the formula a bit and add to your line spacing.

In my humble opinion, these options are worth knowing, but should be restricted to cases where the formula has to appear correctly inside of a fraction or matrix. For inline formulas, the default text style is okay.

An example :




This is an inline formula : $\prod_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}$, \\
and now this is the same inline formula in display style : ${\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}}$, \\
and now this is the same inline formula with limits : $\prod\limits_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}$

Now the same formula in an equation:
  \prod_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}
or in an equation, but in a fraction :
  \frac{\prod_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}}{2}
or in an equation, but in a fraction, but with forced display style :
  \frac{\displaystyle \prod_{i=1}^{\infty} a_{i}}{2}



  • It was explained in the comments. However, I think you forget the option of including \limits which would be a good suggestion? It does not have the huge "forced display" style, but a smaller version. Dec 1, 2012 at 12:52
  • @Dualinity : Comments were posted at the same time as I was posting this. But thanks, you're right, I'll add the \limits.
    – T. Verron
    Dec 1, 2012 at 13:09
  • The latex code does not seem to match the image below it.
    – dinosaur
    Jan 19, 2017 at 2:22
  • 1
    @dinosaur Thanks, I'm not sure if it is really a problem given that the question has already been solved elsewhere. But it's fixed.
    – T. Verron
    Jan 19, 2017 at 10:25
  • this is a great answer
    – user170036
    Jun 2, 2019 at 11:54

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