Arabic numerals are separated using en-dash:

pages 101--123, 2--3 and so on

What is typographically correct way to separate Roman numerals?

For example:

with en-dash

in the XIX--XX centuries 

with en-dash plus two \,

in the XIX\,--\,XX centuries 

or, maybe, with the usual dash

in the XIX\,---\,XX centuries
  • 2
    I'd say that you should use (i) en-dashes and (ii) whatever amount of horizontal separation between the (roman) numerals and en-dashes that's appropriate for your country's typographic practice. In the U.S., it's not customary to insert a space (generally a thin-space) between the numerals and the dash, but in some other countries it is customary to do so. – Mico Jan 11 '13 at 19:46
  • 1
    Conceptually, an en-dash is used where 'and' or 'to' is appropriate (at least in the tradition in the UK). Thus a page range with any form of page numbering is an en-dash, as you would read as 'to'. – Joseph Wright Jan 11 '13 at 19:50

for a page span, an en-dash (iv--ix) would be appropriate. i see no reason why this shouldn't also be appropriate for cap roman numerals for centuries. the en-dash, with no surrounding spaces, traditionally indicates a span in u.s. typography. as mico points out in a comment, the typographic traditions regarding spaces may differ in other countries.

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