# Condense the space between bibliographic entries

In order to save space, I would like to condense the bibliography, specifically, reduce the amount of vertical space between entries. Currently, it seems there is double-space between consecutive entries.

I use the "article" layout in LyX.

• If you switch to natbib then there is a \bibsep parameter that you can adjust. Jan 18, 2013 at 20:14
• Thank you! I added this to the Latex Preamble: "\setlength{\bibsep}{0.0pt}" Jan 20, 2013 at 12:12
• For people using bibtex in the article class and where yo''s and Hai Zhang's answers did not do the trick, have a look here: https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/17360/reduce-spacing-in-bibliography-using-biblatex This worked for me to reduce the space, whilst the other suggestions did not. Jan 9 at 11:09

As Andrew says, you can use natbib and then reset \bibsep:

\setlength{\bibsep}{0pt plus 0.3ex}


Without natbib, you can set \parskip and \itemsep to zero (they are responsible for the vertical space). It is advised to add some glue-stretch that can be used if necessary (this is what plus 0.3ex is for).

\documentclass[12pt]{article}

\usepackage{lipsum}

\let\OLDthebibliography\thebibliography
\renewcommand\thebibliography[1]{
\OLDthebibliography{#1}
\setlength{\parskip}{0pt}
\setlength{\itemsep}{0pt plus 0.3ex}
}

\begin{document}

\begin{thebibliography}{99}

\bibitem{a} \lipsum[1]

\bibitem{b} \lipsum[4]

\end{thebibliography}

\end{document}

• This did not do anything for me. I added the lines you described, to my pre-amble. I'm trying to make the space between bibliography entries larger. May 23, 2018 at 3:27

For those who are using BibTeX but cannot use the natbib package (thus no \bibsep), and has tried varous \renewcommand on \thebibliography and \itemsep (source), here is what I found that actually works in this scenario (source):

\let\oldthebibliography\thebibliography
\let\endoldthebibliography\endthebibliography
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]{
\begin{oldthebibliography}{#1}
\setlength{\itemsep}{0em}
\setlength{\parskip}{0em}
}
{
\end{oldthebibliography}
}

• Isn't this exactly what yo' already did in the accepted answer? Jun 4, 2017 at 15:54
• @TeXnician No, this one is renewenvironment instead of renewcommand. Cann't remember if this made a difference though. Jun 4, 2017 at 16:09
• This makes no difference as an environment x defines a macro \x and a \endx. That's why your solution is even more complicated than the accepted one (since you also redefine \endthebibliography). Jun 4, 2017 at 16:11