I am getting a unhelpful error while trying to place a node above another node using the below= syntax.

  \node[] (node1) at (0, 0) {Node 1};
    below = 5pt of node1
  ] (node2) {Node 2};

The error message is:

Package PGF Math Error: Unknown operator 'o' or 'of' (in '5pt of node1').

How can I place nodes in relation to other nodes without getting an error message?

  • I recently had the same, even with a documented example. I used ktikz. I then copied it to a normal document and it word. I then made sure that the programs in ktikz had the full path and restarted ktikz. The problem seems to be gone.
    – Louis
    Feb 2, 2022 at 9:03

2 Answers 2


The <placement>=<distance> of <node>.<anchor> syntax only works with the advanced positioning library. The parts

  • distance and
  • of <node>.<anchor> are both optional as
    • .<anchor> is too.

Depending of <placement> the anchor key of the to-be-placed node is internally set according to the following table. The third column shows the default <anchor> if the .<anchor> part is omitted. (The sans-positioning <placement> key is just a better-to-comprehend version of the anchor key.)

 <placement>    anchor        .<anchor>
 above          south         .south
 left           east          .west
 below          north         .south
 right          west          .east
 base left      base east     .base west
 base right     base west     .base east
 mid left       mid east      .mid west
 mid right      mid west      .mid east
 above left     south west    .north east
 above right    south east    .north west
 below left     north west    .south east
 below right    north east    .south west

If no <distance> is given, the value of node distance is taken.

Note that for the four bottom ones the <distance> part can consist of <vertical distance> and <horizontal distance>. (The same is true for the node distance key that is enhanced by the positioning library also.)

The on grid option sets both anchors (the one of the to-be-placed node as well as the referenced .<anchor>) to .center so that the nodes are placed in a grid.

The topics covered by the last two paragraphs are further explained in the PGF manual in section 16.5.3 “Advanced Placement Options”, pp. 185ff.

Example (with positioning library)


  \node (node1) at (0, 0) {Node 1};
  \node[below=5pt of node1] (node2) {Node 2};

Example (without positioning library)

Without the positioning library this can be achieved by combining

  • the old <placement>=<distance> and
  • the at=<node>.<opposite anchor> key,

where <opposite anchor> is the corresponding .<anchor> of the table above.

The correct anchor part is set without the positioning library, too.


  \node (node1) at (0, 0) {Node 1};
  \node[below=5pt,at=(node1.south)] (node2) {Node 2};


enter image description here


The positioning library is missing:


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