While I have no idea where your problem comes from and I’ve never needed to typeset Russian, replacing
newtxmath seems to fix it. The times tag wiki gave me the idea, and while I usually don’t typeset math (and if I did, I wouldn’t use Times),
newtxmath seems to be intended as a successor for
оценка эвапотранспирации тростника обыкновенного
P.S.: This also works with the configuration of your initial MWE.
P.P.S.: Someone more knowledgable in these kinds of font issues might be able to give you a solution without switching packages.