I am trying to use bibtex to output the url from a reference, but it's not working because the url has accentuation, just like below:

url = {http://www.epe.gov.br/mercado/Documents/Série\%20Estudos\%20de\%20Energia/20130117_1.pdf},

The output is:

http://www.epe.gov.br/mercado/Documents/S\unhbox\voidb@x\ bgroup\let\unhbox\voidb@x\setbox\@tempboxa\hbox{e\global\ mathchardef\accent@spacefactor\spacefactor}\accent19e\ egroup\spacefactor\accent@spacefactorrie%20Estudos%20de% 20Energia/20130117_1.pdf

Is there a way to protect the accentuation when it enters on url environment?


2 Answers 2


An URL should not contain accented characters (cf. Uniform resource locator or RFC 3986).

In your URL, replace accented characters by encoded characters:


Edit: Fast reference for encoded characters.

  • The problem with encoded characters is that they obscures the URL such that one can't know what it actually is without a browser. This might be a problem if the work will be printed and the reader is supposed to enter the URL by hand (and is expected to have the input method for the language). Dec 28, 2017 at 18:31
  • @ImperishableNight Extract from RFC 3986: A URI is composed from a limited set of characters consisting of digits, letters, and a few graphic symbols. This set does not contain any accented character! Dec 28, 2017 at 23:53
  • Then RFC 3987 happened and defined the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI). You may argue that it's not "true" URL (the % escaped sequence is), but every modern browser accepts them, and they made my life browsing Chinese wikis a lot merrier. Dec 29, 2017 at 10:29
  • @ImperishableNight Modern browsers can accept IRIs ... but PDF specifications only know URLs. Dec 29, 2017 at 23:26
  • Which, I guess, means that we want to show the IRI but jump to the URL when clicked on. I mean, the second part is optional, you can't click on a printed document anyway. Jan 3, 2018 at 13:23

If I use \usepackage[]{hyperref} before \begin{document} and use in my bibliography e.g. url = {http://www.de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beyoncé_Knowles}, then everything runs without problems. But it is difficult to say if the hyperref-package helps in your case because you do not tell us which packages you are using.


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