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Questions tagged [align]

{align} is an environment provided by math packages that permits multiple related equations to be aligned at a common reference point, usually a sign of relation. For general questions about aligning document elements, use {horizontal-alignment} or {vertical-alignment} instead.

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198
votes
5answers
431k views

eqnarray vs align

Motivation I want to include a list of related equations, say, for a proof, in my LaTeX document. As far as I know, I have two good options, eqnarray and align. Question What is the difference ...
174
votes
4answers
242k views

Show equation number only once in align environment

I want the equation number to be shown only at the last line, or better, somewhere in the middle of all. So instead of (1), (2), ... only (1). I use \begin{align} ... \end{align}
162
votes
5answers
116k views

What are the differences between $$, \[, align, equation and displaymath?

I once learnt, that it is uncool to use $$, but why is that? Why does \[ not act as a abbreviation to \begin{align}? I noticed, that there is a difference, since one cannot use & and \\ inside a ...
129
votes
4answers
146k views

align* but show one equation number at the end

I am using align*, but I still need an equation number. I know one solution is to use align and add \nonumber to all lines but the last. Is there a 'lazy' way to do it? I searched a little and found ...
127
votes
4answers
107k views

How to get only one vertically centered equation number in align environment with two equations

What I have are two equations with align and I want one single equation number to refer to this system of equations. To illustrate, I have \begin{align} dr_t &= \kappa ( \theta - r_t ) dt + \...
90
votes
8answers
354k views

How to align a set of multiline equations

I am trying to align a set of long equations, that are themselves align environments as most of them are spreading on multiple lines. Currently I just have a sequence of align environments, with ...
79
votes
4answers
30k views

What does a double ampersand (&&) mean in LaTeX?

I've seen several answers that use the double ampersand, but I can't figure out exactly what it does. I tried this out: \begin{align*} \frac{3x + y}{7} &= 9 & \text{given} \\ 3x + y &...
64
votes
2answers
66k views

Multiple alignment

In the following piece of code \begin{align*} [x \mapsto s]x &= s \\ [x \mapsto s]y &= y \qquad \text{als } y\neq x \\ [x \mapsto s](\la{y}t_1) &= \la{y}[x \mapsto s]t_1 \qquad \text{als }...
60
votes
5answers
396k views

Align equation left

Here is my split equation: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{split} a_{ijk} =& \frac {Pr(M_{I} =2 \& M_J=1 \& M_K =1 | I=i , J=j , K=...
54
votes
3answers
92k views

Referencing within an align environment

The following LaTeX document: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{align} E=mc^2 \\ \nonumber E=mc^2 \label{eq1} \end{align} ref \ref{eq1} \end{document} Does ...
52
votes
3answers
28k views

Centering \vdots in a system of many equations

I have a system of equations with an arbitrary number of equations (k). I'd like to use \vdots to compactly describe the system, like so: \begin{align*} R(-1) &= \sum_{i=1}^m A(i)R(i-1) \\ R(-...
49
votes
1answer
78k views

Aligning equations with text with alignat

I'm trying to add this expression to my work: I understand that the best way to achieve this is using the alignat environment within the amsmath package, so I tried the following: \begin{alignat*}{3}...
48
votes
1answer
41k views

Multiple Alignment in equations

The following equations need to be aligned in two spots. If I use the align* environment then the second column of alignment is pushed to the right edge of the page. I googled this and saw that ...
44
votes
4answers
118k views

Aligned equations in LaTeX

I have a long equation in LaTeX, which I need to break up into more lines. I've done this, although its not quite what I was looking for. Here is a MWE showing my problem: \documentclass[10pt]{...
38
votes
2answers
141k views

Align multiline equation with expression after equal sign

I am trying to align a multiline equation using array within the equation but it turns out it doesn't do very well. The code I am using is as follows: \begin{equation} \begin{array}{lcl} \mathcal{...
38
votes
1answer
43k views

amsmath align environment: row spacing

How can I stretch the spacing between consecutive lines in an align* environment? I have a few lines with \fracs in which both the numerator and the denominator consist of textual phrases, not math ...
38
votes
3answers
39k views

Remove vertical space around align

I need to display math in my report, but is it possible to remove the vertical space around align*? A little example is the following (where I just want the align* to have the same vertical space as ...
37
votes
1answer
13k views

What is the difference between \notag and \nonumber in align environment?

I use \notag or \nonumber in align environment but there seems no any difference when display. What is the difference between these two commands?
36
votes
4answers
72k views

side-by-side equations, with equation numbers for each

The align command from amsmath allows me to put two equations side-by-side: \begin{align} x = y && a = b \end{align} Unfortunately for my purposes, this shows both equations under one ...
36
votes
1answer
55k views

How can I add left aligned text to an equation?

I have a document I am trying to copy to learn TeX. Here is what I have encountered: How can I have the "or" in the equation. This is what I have right now: \[ f = ma; \] But $a$ is the change in ...
36
votes
2answers
58k views

How to put the QED symbol of a proof at the right place inside align?

When a proof ends with a formula in equation or equation* environment, putting \qedhere after the equation would cause the QED symbol to appear in the right place. I.e. at the end of the line in which ...
34
votes
1answer
85k views

What is the difference between `split`, `multline`, `align`, `breqn` for breaking an equation into multiple lines?

Sorry, if this question sounds a bit amateurish, but I haven't been able to find a good summary about the differences between these four environments for multi-lining an equation. Where do they differ ...
32
votes
1answer
18k views

Uncover lines of an align environment with beamer

Is there any way to uncover equation-lines of an align* environment line per line in a frame conveniently? somethink like \begin{align*}[<+->] a &= b \\ b &= c \\ \...
32
votes
2answers
1k views

How to number the letters of a sentence?

I need to number the letters of a sentence consecutively. Every letter should have the corresponding small number centered below it (see image below). Does anybody know how to do this? I tried \...
31
votes
3answers
117k views

How can I use an align environment flush left?

Is there a way possible to imitate the align environment for math mode commands, without having all writing being placed toward the center on the output page? MWE: \documentclass{article} \...
31
votes
5answers
68k views

How to correctly format (and align) a LaTeX proof?

I'm new to LaTeX and I'm trying to figure out how to correctly format a proof. Can someone show me a basic template for how to do this? The part I am having the most trouble with is creating new ...
31
votes
1answer
39k views

Change font size of an align environment

In a document, I'd like to change the font size of a single align environment (not globally throughout the document). What is the proper way to do this? I've been using Preceding paragraph. {\tiny ...
30
votes
1answer
109k views

Getting arguments underneath \min in an align environment

I am wondering how can I ensure that an argument gets placed underneath \min when I use an align environment. When I use math mode and write \[ min_{x_1,\dots x_T} \] the {x_1,\dots x_T} is ...
30
votes
1answer
34k views

Split expressions with parentheses in align environment

I am writing down a rather long expression, which has to be splitted in a align environment. The thing is that this expression has parentheses which have to be splitted too. I don't want to use ...
29
votes
4answers
4k views

How can I break an align environment for a paragraph?

I would like to have two displayed equations, broken by a short paragraph, but with aligned equal signs (as if using the align environment). Is there some way to "break" the align environment ...
29
votes
6answers
23k views

Vertical alignment of align* in enumerate

Related (but not the same): Align number from enumerate with equation Displaying an equation in a list Earlier today I asked a question about aligning equations in an enumerate environment and ...
29
votes
3answers
76k views

Use flalign or alignat or align or similar environment to align to the left

The following is a small example to use flalign environment to generate equation. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{txfonts} \begin{document} The formula is: \begin{flalign*} ...
28
votes
2answers
13k views

What's the difference between align and align*?

After some brief searching I can't find the difference between align and align*. Google summarily ignoring the * is making it harder I think. Can you tell me the difference between these two? ...
27
votes
3answers
77k views

Two sets of aligned equations in two columns?

Say I have a set of equations: (1) \begin{align} wx&=u\\ wy&=v\\ w&=10 \end{align} (2) \begin{align} x&=u/w\\ y&=v/w\\ \end{align} How can I do the following: put (1) and (2) ...
27
votes
3answers
52k views

aligned environment of amsmath vs array environment

Today I found out the existence of the aligned environment of the amsmath package. However, I can't see the advantage of using it instead of the array environment from the example provided in amsldoc....
26
votes
6answers
11k views

Multiline equation with LHS alone on first line?

I would like my multiline equations to look like this: Left-hand-side of my equation = right-hand-side number 1 = right-hand-side number 2 = etc. I know there is a simple way to do this, ...
26
votes
2answers
41k views

Are \choose and \align incompatible?

I ran across a strange warning when trying to use the math command \choose inside the amsmath package's \align* environment: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{align*...
26
votes
1answer
203k views

How to left align a set of equations

I wanted to left align a set of equations. I've tried the solution provided in aligning to the left. It worked. But, I wanted to have a single equation number for the entire flalign in order to refer ...
25
votes
4answers
21k views

Problem with beamer's \pause in alignments

I have the following code, (edit:) now without aligned. \documentclass{beamer} \mode<presentation> { \setbeamercovered{transparent} } \begin{document} \begin{frame} \[ \begin{cases} %\...
25
votes
2answers
11k views

Highlight an equation within an align environment

I would like to define a command that puts a red box around an equation with yellow highlighting. I have the basics working pretty well. What I am unable to figure out is: How to keep the alignment ...
24
votes
5answers
20k views

What is the difference between aligned in displayed mode and starred align?

I am confused in choosing one of the following approaches. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{siunitx} %\sisetup{detect-all} \usepackage{amsmath} \parindent=0pt\relax \begin{document} The following ...
24
votes
1answer
6k views

Flexible equation, align, multline environment

I'm looking for a command (say \foo{}) or pair of commands (say \foos, \fooe) that behave like: equation environment if there is no \\ nor & multline if there is a single \\ align if there are ...
23
votes
3answers
10k views

Alignment of equals sign in multiple align environments

I have multiple align environments in my document, separated by a small paragraph of text: \begin{align*} foo &= something very very long compared to the other align \end{align*} explanation ...
23
votes
2answers
43k views

align inside of tabular

Today I failed using an align-environment inside of a tabular-environment. Consider the following example: \documentclass[12pt]{scrbook} \usepackage[english]{babel} \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} \...
22
votes
3answers
4k views

align vs. equation: Which way is typograpically preferred?

The main differences between align and equation are the spaces and that align cannot be used with split, as far as I know. What would be, from a typographic point of view, the preferred practice? ...
22
votes
3answers
21k views

AMS Split inside AMS Align

I'd like to have multiple lines inside a single align cell like so: \begin{alignat*}{1} = & \begin{split}x+\\ y\end{split} \end{alignat*} But I get an error like: \end{alignat*} \An extra &...
22
votes
1answer
44k views

Aligning the right parts in multiple \begin{cases}

Is there an intelligent way to left-align the parts right of & of the two cases environments shown below (if x >= 0, otherwise, if y < 0, otherwise). I wonder if there is a better way than ...
21
votes
2answers
119k views

Aligning using flushleft and flushright

I am trying to create one column to the left side by side with another column to the right. The column to the left is labeled "Examples of like terms:" and the column to the right is labeled "Examples ...
21
votes
1answer
10k views

How can I write multi line equations with alignment in inline math mode?

Is there any way to override the fact that certain environments in LaTeX are automatically "displayed"? One such example is the align* environment. I want to keep my aligned equations inline. So ...
20
votes
2answers
27k views

Equations inside enumerate aligned on item's number

If I type \begin{enumerate} \item \begin{align*} eqn 1 eqn 2 \end{align*} \end{enumerate} the label will appear on the first lines and the equations will ...