Questions tagged [brackets]

{brackets} is about different brackets, their usage and functionality in (La)TeX.

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76 votes
7 answers
52k views

Adding a large brace next to a body of text

I'm writing a short document listing some chronological events. I want to pick out a period with a big brace. Here's a quick mockup: What's the best way to do this? Can I set the size declaratively - ...
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66 votes
4 answers
7k views

Is it ever bad to use \left and \right?

For mathematics, is it ever disadvantageous to use \left( and \right) in equations? I can't see any way that doing this would hinder the typesetting, so why isn't () just converted into \left( \...
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  • 1,253
173 votes
7 answers
22k views

Spacing around \left and \right

Why does the addition of a \left and \right introduces an extra space around the formula? Specifically, why do $\cos(\theta)$ and $\cos\left(\theta\right)$ render differently? Is there a way to use ...
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131 votes
4 answers
241k views

"(" or "\left(" parentheses?

What is the difference between ( and \left( in LaTeX? Sometimes, when the content is small, it does not seem to matter which pair I use. What is the best practice when it comes to which parentheses ...
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  • 9,751
66 votes
9 answers
18k views

Automatic left and right commands

Is it possible to automatically "add" \left and \right commands in front of all brackets? The source code should be left intact, but LaTeX should interpret every pair of brackets as if they were ...
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  • 761
55 votes
6 answers
49k views

Biblatex, author-year, square brackets

I need to customize the author-year citation in biblatex for a template at work. Right now biblatex cites like this: Ruschmeyer u. a. 1995, S. 123 They way I was told it needs to cite is: [...
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  • 653
51 votes
5 answers
19k views

How do I label different rows or columns of a matrix using braces?

I have a matrix enclosed in brackets [ ] (or (), or {}, or |'s, or ||'s): - a b c d - | e f g h | | i j k l | - m n o p - which I want to label like so: R |---| -- - a b c d -...
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  • 3,325
12 votes
2 answers
6k views

LaTeX: optional arguments with square brackets [duplicate]

LaTeX is trying to add a missing $ that I don't want to the following code. Minimal working example: \documentclass[letter,12pt]{article} \newcommand{\monkeyBeans}[2][]{ \parbox{4in}{#1} } \begin{...
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  • 331
23 votes
3 answers
29k views

\bordermatrix with brackets [ ] instead of parentheses ( )

I have the following code: \documentclass{article} \begin{document} $ M = \bordermatrix{~ & x & y \cr A & 1 & 0 \cr B & 0 & 1 \cr} $ \end{document} ...
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  • 413
193 votes
4 answers
789k views

How to write a function (piecewise) with bracket outside?

How to write this Piecewise function using LaTeX? I tried $ \begin{array}{cc} \{ & \begin{array}{cc} 0 & x\leq 0 \\ \frac{100-x}{100} & 0\leq x\leq 100 \\ 0 & ...
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  • 2,981
26 votes
3 answers
5k views

Vertically asymmetric size variation for parentheses

One of the difficulties I have with writing formulas in LaTeX is that the standard sizing tools for the variable-size operators (parentheses, etc.) do not account for "high" symbols and "low" symbols ...
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54 votes
2 answers
20k views

Difference between \big[ and \bigl[

What is the difference between \big[ (or equivalently \big() and \bigl[? Is it always necessary to mention l (left) and r (right)?
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  • 15.8k
59 votes
4 answers
96k views

Enumerated list with square brackets

I want to make an enumerated list in the following format: [1] foo foo [2] foo foo ... How I can do that using enumerated lists? I have tried the following: \begin{enumerate}[\left[ 1 \right]] ...
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  • 693
49 votes
3 answers
99k views

\overbrace and \underbrace with square bracket

I'm trying to put a nice square bracket over a complex text, it should look like an \overline but with ending like \ulcorner and \urcorner. The presence of \overrightarrow and \overleftarrow makes me ...
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51 votes
6 answers
15k views

How can I get an underbrace and an overbrace to partially overlap in an equation?

Sometimes I want to describe portions of an equation using \underbrace and \overbrace in such a way that the portions are not completely distinct, for example: /-------\ x = A + B + C + D + E ...
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13 votes
3 answers
7k views

Big brackets around Text

I want to create a big single curly bracket over a paragraph of text. I will be using this for many, many paragraphs. I want to make it left and/or right idented. This is for a conversational styled ...
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  • 173
20 votes
3 answers
2k views

Curly brace to insert something into an equation? Like an inverted underbrace

I have a generic equation, into which I want to "insert" something so that the reader can see what I inserted into the equation and at which point. E.g. \documentclass{plain} \begin{document} \[ f =...
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  • 2,992
27 votes
4 answers
16k views

Align large vertical delimiters (brackets) to rows of a table?

I’m trying to typeset a table of data, with brackets (i.e. }) at the right-hand side to show a classification of the rows.  Something like: ----------------------- | Aardvark | Armenia | \ |--------...
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26 votes
4 answers
9k views

What is the correct way to do delimiters?

I've always used \left and \right with my delimiters, but Martin Heller's answer to another question indicates that this method gives incorrect spacing. The correction appears to be prepending \...
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7 votes
1 answer
1k views

Environment aligned doesn't output first part in bracket

\begin{equation} \begin{aligned} [c\mathbf{v}+c'\mathbf{v}',\mathbf{w}]=&c[\mathbf{v},\mathbf{w}]+c'[\mathbf{v}',\mathbf{w}],\\ [\mathbf{v},c\mathbf{w}+c'\mathbf{w}']=&c[\...
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57 votes
5 answers
27k views

How to have overlapping under-braces and over-braces

I am trying to typeset an equation that has overlapping over and under braces as per the image below: I have managed to typeset it using a sort of a hack, by typing the equation twice, once using \...
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18 votes
2 answers
15k views

Easily change behavior of \DeclarePairedDelimiter [duplicate]

After seeing the answer to this question I realized that I preferred the way of working of Juan A. Navarro's answer: I.e., \DeclarePairedDelimiter{\parens}{\lparen}{\rparen} from mathtools is a great ...
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  • 26.2k
22 votes
12 answers
4k views

Universal Parentheses

I know it's a bit of an odd request but it is one to which the solution would save me a lot of time. I write a lot of documents in LaTex (especially maths - no surprise) and I prefer the look of $\...
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21 votes
1 answer
65k views

Brackets in first column in table give "Missing number, treated as zero" error [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Error with table I'm writing a table with 4 columns and 1 row. The first column starts with a bracket. It compiles without issues: \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \...
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  • 19.7k
5 votes
2 answers
1k views

How to make expanding middle delimitors like in the braket package

The braket package has convenient commands like \Braket and \Set, where | are automatically expanded vertically. This allows to easily typeset expressions like \documentclass{minimal} \usepackage{...
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10 votes
3 answers
6k views

Macros \dv and \pdv eat the subsequent parenthesis argument

The physics package has the macros \dv and \pdv which are great but I have a small problem with them. If an argument with parenthesis included right after them they eat the whole argument. If there ...
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9 votes
3 answers
671 views

Typesetting linguistic rewrite rule

I'm trying to (more or less) replicate this phonological rewrite rule: I'm using the package phonrule, and what I manage to accomplish is this: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{phonrule} \begin{...
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  • 19.7k
9 votes
3 answers
14k views

Need to change citation format from [1] to (a)

I need to change the format of citations for my bibliography items to look like: "See Reference (a)" instead of "See Reference (1)" I have used code like: \renewcommand\@cite[1]{Reference~(#1)} in ...
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  • 91
2 votes
1 answer
627 views

Doubled parentheses, braces, brackets and angles

I need some doubled versions of the standard parentheses, namely parentheses, braces, brackets and angles. They should be scalable and the output should look roughly like this: \documentclass[border=...
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2 votes
1 answer
389 views

biblatex authoryear-icomp parenthesis in footnotes and textcite

By typing Some text \autocite[88]{A01}. Now Textcite \textcite[88]{A01} I try to achieve the following output: Using this answer, I do get the footnotes right. Unfortunately, there are brackets ...
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  • 137
29 votes
2 answers
179k views

Tall curly brace

I would like to put a tall (long) left curly bracket on the left side of the following: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \begin{document} \noindent c: $\{$1, ..., n$\}$ $\rightarrow$ $\{$1, ..., n$\}$,...
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  • 393
27 votes
2 answers
866 views

Deep Brackets Around a Text

What I'm trying to achieve is to get the following effect for a body of text: I've looked at many examples that use all sort of brackets, but none of them look like the ones above. So far, I've only ...
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  • 578
7 votes
4 answers
8k views

underbrace matrix inside brackets

I would like to put an underbrace below the matrix like this: $$\left(\underbrace{ \left[\begin{array}{ccc} a&b&c\\ d&e&f\\ g&h&i \end{array}\right]}_{A} \left[\...
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  • 309
12 votes
5 answers
3k views

A symbol for the field of formal Laurent series

In my area of math one of the objects that pops up quite often is the field of all formal Laurent series. Now the trouble is that the notation for this field is $\mathbf{C} (( t ))$. Now the two ...
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  • 1,931
7 votes
3 answers
2k views

Less pointy angle brackets

I was looking for a way to beautifully display UML stereotype titles including angle brackets like you can see here: What I came up with is $\mathtt{\ll metaclass\gg}$, however, as you can see here ...
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  • 103
13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Import curly brackets from MathDesign (Utopia)

I am using Fourier maths fonts with Utopia text (\usepackage{fourier}) for a book project, but I'm not satisfied with the curly brackets \{ and \}. They are too slim, and barely distinguishable from ...
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  • 153
10 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why should I “enclose the previous parenthesis with ‘{}’”? [duplicate]

I stumbled across this line in chktex (here) with a note saying This is a warning which you may ignore, but for maximum aestethic pleasure, you should enclose your bracket characters with `{}'s. ...
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  • 103
9 votes
4 answers
21k views

problem of introducing long brackets in different lines

I have a problem writing an equation in eqnarray environment, where I split a single line into two lines. The first line starting with \left[ and the second line ending with \right], but I could not ...
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8 votes
2 answers
12k views

How to have curly bracket spanning items of Itemize

We already know how to have a curly bracket spanning multiple non-math lines of text: Cf. Curly brackets spanning multiple lines (no math env) | Only 1 curly bracket, at 1 side What I wonder now is: ...
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  • 1,663
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

Highlighted Matrix with brackets

I would like to produce the matrix as shown in this figure: At the moment, I have this code: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{tikz} \usetikzlibrary{matrix} \begin{document} \begin{tikzpicture} ...
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8 votes
2 answers
2k views

Double subscript error with \newcommand?

Disclaimer: I know of Defining a newcommand with sub- or superscript and avoiding "double subscript" error but this only gives a work-around, but no explanation to my question. Here's a ...
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  • 12.4k
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do I specify a round parenthesis above some text?

How can I draw a horizontal round parenthesis above some text? How do I specify a round parenthesis below some text? explains how to do it below text.
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  • 1,392
21 votes
5 answers
81k views

Lyx: Quick way to insert Dirac bra-ket

In LyX, what is a quick way to insert mismatched delimiters in math environment? I tried typing \left|\right>, but it is not interpreted automatically.
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  • 211
53 votes
4 answers
161k views

big angle brackets

I know that \langle and \rangle creates left and right angle brackets. But they don't seem to adopt to the size of the expression inside. For example, if I have a big matrix, I would like to angle ...
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  • 531
19 votes
2 answers
18k views

Angle brackets in non-math-mode text

Is there a way to directly input angle brackets into text without resorting to math-mode symbols? I'd like to correctly indicate orthography in a linguistics paper, and have been resorting to single ...
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  • 2,763
17 votes
1 answer
5k views

How do I remove parentheses from theorem optional argument?

This is a MWE: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{amsfonts, amsthm, amsmath, amssymb} \theoremstyle{definition} \newtheorem{Theorem}{Theorem}[section] \newtheorem*{Pythagorean theorem}{...
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  • 503
5 votes
3 answers
2k views

Drawing the rules for the bracket polynomial

I am trying to re-create the three rules for the bracket polynomial: This is what I have tried so far: \documentclass[executivepaper]{article} \usepackage{mathtools} \everymath{\displaystyle} \...
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5 votes
1 answer
336 views

How to draw horizontal curly braces under a timeline?

I have drawn a timeline using following answer for How draw multiple timelines one after another. Is it possible to add horizontal curly braces under the timeline along with its label? Desired sketch ...
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  • 400
2 votes
3 answers
7k views

How to write brackets in a matrix

I can't describe it, just i can't do it. Can you help me please. Note that there is an arrow showing the position "t".
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  • 813
14 votes
4 answers
967 views

How do I specify a round parenthesis below some text?

I need something similar to \underbrace but instead of curly brackets, I would like to have normal round horizontal paranthesis below my text. Similar to \textbottomtiebar but spanning the whole text. ...
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  • 1,392