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Questions tagged [equations]

{equations} is about the various environments to typeset displaystyle mathematics, e.g. equation and {align}. For general questions about mathematical typesetting use {math-mode}. Both tags are possible on the same question.

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762 votes
8 answers
259k views

Why is \[ ... \] preferable to $$ ... $$?

I've heard that you should use \[ ... \] for displayed equations instead of $$ ... $$, but why is that? I'd assumed that it's so that you can more easily tell which are starting and which are ending ...
Sophie Alpert's user avatar
247 votes
5 answers
617k views

eqnarray vs align

Motivation I want to include a list of related equations, say, for a proof, in my LaTeX document. As far as I know, I have two good options, eqnarray and align. Question What is the difference ...
Larry Wang's user avatar
  • 3,555
205 votes
5 answers
175k views

What are the differences between $$, \[, align, equation and displaymath?

I once learnt, that it is uncool to use $$, but why is that? Why does \[ not act as a abbreviation to \begin{align}? I noticed, that there is a difference, since one cannot use & and \\ inside a ...
niklasfi's user avatar
  • 2,283
355 votes
10 answers
1.3m views

How can I split an equation over two (or more) lines

I am having the following equation: \begin{equation} Q(\lambda,\hat{\lambda}) = -\frac{1}{2} P(O \mid \lambda ) \sum_s \sum_m \sum_t \gamma_m^{(s)} (t) \left( n \log(2 \pi ) + \log \left| C_m^{(s)} ...
Peter Smit's user avatar
  • 14.1k
39 votes
2 answers
17k views

Left/Right across multi-line equation

I have a multi-line equation that I want to have matching sized parentheses. The advice I read online was to use \left( equation \right. \\ left. rest-of-equation \right) . However, this syntax leaves ...
crasic's user avatar
  • 1,606
243 votes
2 answers
492k views

How to write conditional equations with one-sided curly brackets [duplicate]

I want to write a conditional expression such as the following. What is the best way to express such conditional expressions in Latex?
highBandWidth's user avatar
163 votes
4 answers
124k views

Separate long math text under sum symbol into different lines?

I have the following equation, where there is a lot of stuff under the sum symbol: \begin{equation} d(\vec{x},\vec{y})= \sum_{Z_{xy}\in\vec{Z}_{xy},\forall x\in\vec{x},\forall y\in\vec{y}} f(...
Frank's user avatar
  • 7,225
128 votes
8 answers
874k views

Align equation left

Here is my split equation: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{split} a_{ijk} =& \frac {Pr(M_{I} =2 \& M_J=1 \& M_K =1 | I=i , J=j , K=...
user35571's user avatar
  • 2,137
106 votes
5 answers
90k views

align vs equation

I always use align in my documents, and avoid equation. Is there anything wrong with that? My reasoning behind this: align > equation, so why not use it?
rubenvb's user avatar
  • 3,903
97 votes
3 answers
61k views

How to make a standalone document with one equation?

I was surprised to find that standalone package can not compile a document with an equation: \documentclass{standalone} \begin{document} \begin{equation} % not working! F(V, T) = E(V) + D(T) \end{...
alfC's user avatar
  • 14.4k
74 votes
2 answers
53k views

How to globally change the spacing around equations?

How could I go about setting the 'above' and 'below' vspaces around the equation environment? If the same could be done for the subequations or gather environments, this would be a bonus.
User 17670's user avatar
  • 4,752
235 votes
5 answers
988k views

How to break a long equation? [duplicate]

I have an equation long enough to occupy two lines. I want to break it to improve readability. How can I break it? \begin{equation} F = \{F_{x} \in F_{c} : (|S| > |C|) \cap (minPixels < |S| &...
nacho4d's user avatar
  • 11.1k
168 votes
6 answers
568k views

Reducing font size in equation

I wanted to type an equation in LaTeX. But it is too long to fit into one line. It involves big arrays with many columns so I cannot split it. I wanted to reduce the font size so that it can fit in ...
sheet_ethics's user avatar
  • 2,931
193 votes
4 answers
208k views

How to get only one vertically centered equation number in align environment with two equations

What I have are two equations with align and I want one single equation number to refer to this system of equations. To illustrate, I have \begin{align} dr_t &= \kappa ( \theta - r_t ) dt + \...
Paul Koer's user avatar
  • 3,495
134 votes
8 answers
616k views

How to align a set of multiline equations

I am trying to align a set of long equations, that are themselves align environments as most of them are spreading on multiple lines. Currently I just have a sequence of align environments, with ...
SeismicVibrations's user avatar
47 votes
1 answer
88k views

How can I add left aligned text to an equation?

I have a document I am trying to copy to learn TeX. Here is what I have encountered: How can I have the "or" in the equation. This is what I have right now: \[ f = ma; \] But $a$ is the change in ...
masfenix's user avatar
  • 1,439
241 votes
4 answers
168k views

Is it possible to pagebreak aligned equations?

The report I'm writting features a lot of long, multiple lines equations. To reduce visual polution I've been using an aligned environment nested inside equation. This way (unlike just using an align ...
Malabarba's user avatar
  • 7,012
25 votes
1 answer
5k views

Changing the appearance of equation numbers with amsmath

For equations in my document, I use the facilities of the amsmath package. In order to make the equation numbers more eye-catching, I want them to be in boldface and a little bit indented to the ...
diabonas's user avatar
  • 25.8k
22 votes
1 answer
16k views

Switch between leqno and reqno options (of amsmath) in the same document

I'd like to know if it is possible switch between the leqno and reqno options in the same document keeping the numbering of the equations. Namely i use the reqno option (default for amsmath and the ...
skpblack's user avatar
  • 8,964
4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Blank lines in an equation and some other similar function

Why blank lines between equation makes error? there are a lot of commands in latex and almost for all of them these blank lines are not important, but why in this case is important and is there any ...
Amin Qassemi's user avatar
215 votes
4 answers
960k views

How to write a function (piecewise) with bracket outside?

How to write this Piecewise function using LaTeX? I tried $ \begin{array}{cc} \{ & \begin{array}{cc} 0 & x\leq 0 \\ \frac{100-x}{100} & 0\leq x\leq 100 \\ 0 & ...
GarouDan's user avatar
  • 3,291
186 votes
8 answers
741k views

How do I turn off equation auto numbering

I have an equation like this: \begin{align} P(A \cup B) = \sum_{\omega \in A \cup B} P(\omega) = \sum_{\omega \in A} P(\omega) + \sum_{\omega \in B} P(\omega) = P(A) + P(B) \end{...
user1046's user avatar
  • 1,963
176 votes
6 answers
239k views

align* but show one equation number at the end

I am using align*, but I still need an equation number. I know one solution is to use align and add \nonumber to all lines but the last. Is there a 'lazy' way to do it? I searched a little and found ...
digit plumber's user avatar
107 votes
8 answers
108k views

How to write a perfect equation parameters description?

Equation's symbols or parameters description are shown below, however, the = and the details of parameter are not aligned. I want to make a parameters list for a equation like this, in which symbols,...
KOF's user avatar
  • 5,019
91 votes
2 answers
21k views

How do I number equations only if they are referred to in the text?

I have a paper where all equations are numbered, but I want to number equations only if they are actually referred to in the .tex file using \ref{}. How can I make that happen? Alternatively, how can ...
klew's user avatar
  • 999
284 votes
4 answers
435k views

Show equation number only once in align environment

I want the equation number to be shown only at the last line, or better, somewhere in the middle of all. So instead of (1), (2), ... only (1). I use \begin{align} ... \end{align}
Bogdan Lataianu's user avatar
136 votes
4 answers
348k views

Attractive Boxed Equations

I often used \boxed{...} from the AMS math package to place a box around important equations. However, this approach often produces somewhat awkward looking output. Consider \documentclass{article} ...
Freddie Witherden's user avatar
23 votes
1 answer
13k views

Blank lines in align environment

Is there a way to insert a blank line between two equations in align environment? From what I understand a blank line is interpreted as \par and \par is not allowed in align. Can I disable this "...
Mathieu Larose's user avatar
47 votes
4 answers
23k views

Sharing alignment between equations in two different items

In the following minimal example, I have two equations inside an itemize environment, with an item per equations. Each equation is defined in its own equation environment. \documentclass{article} \...
Julian Lamas-Rodriguez's user avatar
27 votes
1 answer
208k views

How to left align a set of equations

I wanted to left align a set of equations. I've tried the solution provided in aligning to the left. It worked. But, I wanted to have a single equation number for the entire flalign in order to refer ...
user492884's user avatar
182 votes
3 answers
17k views

Making equations copyable in pdf

I would like to write a .pdf, where my readers could copy the rendered formulae and paste them directly in their TeX documents. And the copied text would automatically be: \int x\sin ax\;\mathrm{d}x ...
Jonas's user avatar
  • 3,353
150 votes
3 answers
351k views

Label equation with a symbol

I would like to label an equation with an arbitrary symbol, rather than a number, or letter. Is this possible?
Alex's user avatar
  • 2,705
26 votes
2 answers
15k views

Highlight an equation within an align environment

I would like to define a command that puts a red box around an equation with yellow highlighting. I have the basics working pretty well. What I am unable to figure out is: How to keep the alignment ...
Peter Grill's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Refer to the "name" of an equation, while a List of Equations is generated using these names

I link two questions below because I use their solution, to number my equations and generate a list of my equations. My question about numbering equations: Number of Equation: 1, 1a, 1b Generate a ...
user69453's user avatar
  • 936
64 votes
4 answers
158k views

side-by-side equations, with equation numbers for each

The align command from amsmath allows me to put two equations side-by-side: \begin{align} x = y && a = b \end{align} Unfortunately for my purposes, this shows both equations under one ...
SuperElectric's user avatar
122 votes
2 answers
50k views

Two letter variable names

In math mode, TeX assumes "hidden multiplication" (so that two variable names put nearby have invisible multiplication between), so that, AFAICT, expressions like $ABC$ are rendered with small ...
user avatar
63 votes
3 answers
111k views

Double square brackets

In many equation editors (e.g. MS Word 2007 and Daum Equation Editor), there's a double square bracket. Is there a TeX equivalent for [[, ((, )), and ]]?
user avatar
53 votes
7 answers
18k views

How can I get an underbrace and an overbrace to partially overlap in an equation?

Sometimes I want to describe portions of an equation using \underbrace and \overbrace in such a way that the portions are not completely distinct, for example: /-------\ x = A + B + C + D + E ...
Michael Underwood's user avatar
39 votes
6 answers
8k views

LaTeX accessibility

Does anyone know of any LaTeX modules that makes the pdf output generated by pdflatex Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)/Section 508 compliant? Specifics: With regard to math. One simple ...
David Hammen's user avatar
  • 2,029
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

Defining a new command for making functional lines / package

As you have probably guessed from the title my mother tounge is not English. Therefore I have no idea if "Functional lines" is the correct term for what I am looking for. Basically I am looking to ...
N3buchadnezzar's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
5k views

Undersetting an arrow beneath an equation

I'm looking to add an arrow underneath an equals sign to explain the step that has been taken. See below: To achieve the arrow style that I like to use, I used \drsh from mathabx. I tried using \...
flopflips's user avatar
  • 113
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

Translate in-line equations to TeX code (Any Package?)

I have a software that allows to implement equations and one can write them in-line such as: ================== x = a_avg + ((x-1)/b_trans)^(-y^(-x)) y = .... z = .... (something that have a ...
Physther's user avatar
  • 291
72 votes
1 answer
159k views

What is the difference between split, multline, align, breqn for breaking an equation into multiple lines?

Sorry, if this question sounds a bit amateurish, but I haven't been able to find a good summary about the differences between these four environments for multi-lining an equation. Where do they differ ...
xji's user avatar
  • 1,285
43 votes
3 answers
9k views

Which command should I use for displayed equations?

A number of related questions have already been asked about this issue: align vs equation which is preferable to what to do with this hyperref note on amsmath and even eqnarray vs align But I'm ...
Juan A. Navarro's user avatar
41 votes
7 answers
80k views

Image equation to TeX

Is there a tool for exporting equation images to TeX? Probably something related to OCR. I have a lot of image-equations in a word document that I'd like to convert to TeX. Note that the equations ...
mreq's user avatar
  • 1,121
26 votes
2 answers
2k views

Unicode in the equations: pros and cons

Is there any pros and cons for using of Unicode (and vice versa) in LaTeX equations? Consider two examples: \lim_{h→0}∫_{x_0}^{x_0 + h}\frac{f(t)}{h} = f(x_0) x_0 ⇔ ∀ 𝜀 > 0, ∃ 𝛿 > 0,(|x-x_0|...
m0nhawk's user avatar
  • 9,684
24 votes
4 answers
3k views

Graphics equations: put text on equations

I have a big question that I cannot solve by myself. I would like to add text on my equations, but I like to have some graphics on those. For instance, I would like to explain why I am doing ...
1dre's user avatar
  • 419
23 votes
6 answers
24k views

Diagonal strikeout starting too low and ending too high

I want to strikeout an equation with diagonal line but I've not managed to get the diagonal line to draw as I want. The closest I've gotten is via the first example in Frédéric's answer of \cancel ...
N.N.'s user avatar
  • 36.3k
21 votes
5 answers
21k views

abovedisplayskip vs abovedisplayshortskip

What is the difference between these two? http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/TeX/abovedisplayskip http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/TeX/abovedisplayshortskip I don't know why, but it seems to work unusually. ...
Aram Kocharyan's user avatar
20 votes
3 answers
24k views

Aligning across 'aligned' equation blocks

I'd like to format two groups of equations such that all their equal signs line up and such that I can put a big brace to the right of each block to annotate that block. The last part is easily ...
Torsten Schönfeld's user avatar

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