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Questions tagged [math-mode]

{math-mode} is about typesetting mathematical content, e.g. tweaking the appearance of spacing and symbols in a formula, or producing specific mathematical constructs. For questions about "wrapper" environments like equation or align, consider the tag {equations}.

536
votes
8answers
113k views

Why is \[ … \] preferable to $$ … $$?

I've heard that you should use \[ ... \] for displayed equations instead of $$ ... $$, but why is that? I'd assumed that it's so that you can more easily tell which are starting and which are ending ...
399
votes
13answers
850k views

How can I get bold math symbols?

To make Latin-letter variables bold I can use e.g. \mathbf{a}, but while putting Greek letters or symbols such as \nabla inside \mathbf doesn't cause any errors or warnings, it also doesn't do ...
384
votes
5answers
495k views

What are all the font styles I can use in math mode?

As can be seen in above picture, there are lots of fonts or font styles that can be used in math mode. What are all the fonts or font styles I can use in math mode, and which packages are required in ...
278
votes
9answers
40k views

Are \( and \) preferable to dollar signs for math mode?

Along the lines of Why is \[ ... \] preferable to $$ ... $$?, what reasons are there (if any) to favor \( ... \) over $ ... $?
227
votes
6answers
652k views

How can I split an equation over two (or more) lines

I am having the following equation: \begin{equation} Q(\lambda,\hat{\lambda}) = -\frac{1}{2} P(O \mid \lambda ) \sum_s \sum_m \sum_t \gamma_m^{(s)} (t) \left( n \log(2 \pi ) + \log \left| C_m^{(s)} ...
219
votes
7answers
792k views

Absolute Value Symbols

What is the "best LaTeX practices" for writing absolute value symbols? Are there any packages which provide good methods? Some options include |x| and \mid x \mid, but I'm not sure which is best...
204
votes
11answers
129k views

How to typeset $:=$ correctly?

I like to use $:=$ for "is defined to be equal to", but this is never typeset with the symmetry one would like, as the colon is always too low relatively to the equals sign. Is there any way of ...
202
votes
4answers
470k views

What is the “correct” way of embedding text into math mode?

Lets say I have something like: \[ Let x = number of cats \] (This is a contrived example, but pretend we are actually inside a long align environment block...) "Let" and "number of cats" need to ...
192
votes
8answers
344k views

Command for argmin or argmax?

How can you get the argmin or argmax in Latex? Two solutions I found are: \underset{x}{\operatorname{argmax}} \DeclareMathOperator*{\argmin}{arg\,min} Any other ideas? [1] http://www.breakthru....
175
votes
12answers
237k views

What is the best symbol for vector/matrix transpose?

What is the best or most popular symbol for vector/matrix transpose? I have used simply ^T, for example $c^T x$. I think it is ugly, mainly because it is a little too big compared with vector ...
174
votes
3answers
98k views

What's the difference between \mathrm and \operatorname?

I apparently can't see the difference in a compilation (pdflatex) between \mathrm and \operatorname. So, as in the title the question is: is there a difference? Which one is preferable in what ...
166
votes
4answers
272k views

Nice looking empty set?

I feel like the standard $\emptyset$ is ugly. By hand, my empty set symbol is a lot rounder, then this "slashed-zero"-type symbol. Two questions: Do people really use it (I mean people who have any ...
160
votes
3answers
602k views

Big Parenthesis in an Equation

I have an equation contained inside \[...\], which automatically makes a \sum with sub- and superscripts turn big--so that the summation sign looks awkward inside parenthesis. Any idea how to make ...
151
votes
5answers
103k views

What are the differences between $$, \[, align, equation and displaymath?

I once learnt, that it is uncool to use $$, but why is that? Why does \[ not act as a abbreviation to \begin{align}? I noticed, that there is a difference, since one cannot use & and \\ inside a ...
144
votes
1answer
290k views

\mathbb{Z} yields undefined control sequence error

I am using WinEdt 6 for compiling my TeX documents. I am getting an error with contains the line $\mathbb{Z}$ showing that it is undefined control sequence. How should I rectify it? Should I include ...
143
votes
6answers
14k views

Spacing around \left and \right

Why does the addition of a \left and \right introduces an extra space around the formula? Specifically, why do $\cos(\theta)$ and $\cos\left(\theta\right)$ render differently? Is there a way to use ...
143
votes
5answers
231k views

\mid, | (vertical bar), \vert, \lvert, \rvert, \divides

What's the difference between the different vertical bars? $S = \{\, x \mid x \not= 17 \,\}$ $a \vert b$ implies $a \leq b$ when $b \ne 0$ $a|b$ implies $a \leq b$ when $b \ne 0$ $\lvert x \rvert$ is ...
142
votes
2answers
257k views

How can I get text underneath an underbrace?

I am looking to do something of the following: To get text underneath the underbrace. Is it involving \stackrel or some sort of similar command?
132
votes
4answers
154k views

Show inline math as if it were display math

I'm very familiar with how symbols display differently in inline mode (with $) vs. how display math shows them (with \[ or $$). Two examples would be with limits $\lim_{n\righarrow \infty}f(x)$ vs. ...
132
votes
4answers
283k views

how to write ceil and floor in latex?

Is there a macro in latex to write ceil(x) and floor(x) in short form? The long form \left \lceil{x}\right \rceil is a bit lengthy to type every time it is used.
131
votes
3answers
144k views

How to put a big bracket under different parts of a equation so that I could write e.g. a text specific to that part in the equation?

How to put a big bracket under different parts of a equation so that I could write e.g. a text specific to that part in the equation? For example : f = x^3 + 2 |___| |__| | | ...
130
votes
4answers
408k views

How to write a function (piecewise) with bracket outside?

How to write this Piecewise function using LaTeX? I tried $ \begin{array}{cc} \{ & \begin{array}{cc} 0 & x\leq 0 \\ \frac{100-x}{100} & 0\leq x\leq 100 \\ 0 &...
130
votes
1answer
424k views

How to write N x N (with a multiplication symbol, for matrix dimensions)?

I need to write something like NxN in LaTeX but I do not get how... How to do such thing?
123
votes
8answers
74k views

Stop LaTeX from breaking an inline math equation

I hope this question was not asked before. At least I haven't found it. I have an inline math equation and LaTeX is breaking it into two parts. In this case I'd prefer to have the whole and short ...
123
votes
6answers
79k views

How can I write multiple lines in a subscript?

Is there a way to force a line break inside a math mode text? My example: \[ \underbrace{....}_\text{Some long text that should be multiline} \] Trying \text{Some long text that\\ should be ...
121
votes
4answers
273k views

Math symbol question: Vertical bar for ''evaluated at …''

How do I insert the line "|" after the equation in LaTeX (see image below)? I'm using LyX so if you can point me to the symbol of that line is also OK. I don't know if this line has a proper name so ...
121
votes
2answers
160k views

How to color math symbols?

One can use the command such as \textcolor[rgb]{1.00,0.00,0.00}{boundary} to color the word "boundary" in a document. Here is my question: How to color the math symbols in $$? For example, can one ...
117
votes
2answers
59k views

How to get Beamer Math to look like Article Math

In a LaTeX article, the math characters are more "curvy" than the text characters: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \begin{document} $x^2 + y^2 = z^2$ \end{document} In a beamer presentation, the math ...
115
votes
7answers
335k views

How to write cases with LaTeX?

The code i used to write is this one $$ X(m,n)= \begin{cases} x(n),\\ x(n-1)\\ x(n-1) \end{cases} $$ But I don't know how to write this one I appreciate any help. Edited: I'm sorry to add this ...
115
votes
4answers
205k views

“(” or “\left(” parentheses?

What is the difference between ( and \left( in LaTeX? Sometimes, when the content is small, it does not seem to matter which pair I use. What is the best practice when it comes to which parentheses ...
114
votes
4answers
39k views

When not to use \ensuremath for math macro?

I have gotten into the habit of using \ensuremath around math components in every macro that I define, so that I can use the same macro inside and outside of math mode. But egreg's comments in \...
110
votes
5answers
232k views

How do you get \mathbb{1} to work (characteristic function of a set)?

I am trying to get the digit one printed the \mathbb{} font in math mode, however the command \mathbb{1} outputs some rubbish. I certainly saw the character I am after in some pdf's generated from ...
107
votes
7answers
46k views

Define additional math operators to be typeset in roman

Mathematical operators, such as function names, should be set in roman type, not italics. Latex already has commands for some operators, including \max, \min, and \log. How can I define additional ...
106
votes
2answers
48k views

Using \colon or : in formulas?

I noticed that in many documents you encounter $f: X \to Y$ instead of $f \colon X \to Y$. Another example are quantified expressions: $\forall x: P (x)$ versus $\forall x \colon P(x)$. I find the \...
104
votes
2answers
211k views

What is the difference between \dfrac and \frac?

The title says it all, both \dfrac{a}{b} and \frac{a}{b} make fractions, so what is the difference between the two?
104
votes
5answers
430k views

Real number symbol (UTF-8: ℝ) in XeTeX

How can I get the 'real number' sign (something like \mathbb{R} with the amssymb package in LaTeX) in XeTeX?
104
votes
2answers
72k views

Separate long math text under sum symbol into different lines?

I have the following equation, where there is a lot of stuff under the sum symbol: \begin{equation} d(\vec{x},\vec{y})= \sum_{Z_{xy}\in\vec{Z}_{xy},\forall x\in\vec{x},\forall y\in\vec{y}} f(...
103
votes
6answers
52k views

Allowing line break at ',' in inline math mode?

In the inline math mode ($...$), if the formula is too long, LaTeX will try to break it on operators, e.g. very long text followed by a very long equation like $a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k+l$ etc may be ...
102
votes
2answers
34k views

Two letter variable names

In math mode, TeX assumes "hidden multiplication" (so that two variable names put nearby have invisible multiplication between), so that, AFAICT, expressions like $ABC$ are rendered with small ...
100
votes
3answers
239k views

How to add text under symbol in equation ?

I was trying to make something like this (something similar to \substack in \sum) in equation. How to do this ?
99
votes
5answers
62k views

Should I \mathrm the d in my integrals?

When writing an integral, it seems like something should be done to separate the "d", as in \int f(x) dx, so as not to confuse it with a variable. I've seen it left as-is, bolded, and straightened. ...
96
votes
5answers
290k views

How to add a matrix to a LaTeX document

How do we add a matrix to a LaTeX document?
96
votes
1answer
277k views

tilde over a symbol Phi

Please suggest me a way to put tilde over a symbol phi. I can easily put it over a letter but coming to the case of symbols, it is giving problems. Thanks in advance.
95
votes
6answers
66k views

What is the advantage of using $f^\prime$ instead of $f'$?

Although the two outputs look quite similar, what is the advantage of using $f^\prime$ instead of $f'$? By the way, here is my code: \documentclass‎{article‎}‎ \begin{document}‎‎‎ \[‎ ‎f^‎\prime ‎(x)=...
93
votes
2answers
221k views

Is there a circle symbol?

Is there a circle symbol for the composition of two functions? Or do I have to resort to using other ways to represent that?
86
votes
1answer
126k views

Expression under summation on multiple lines [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Separate long math text under sum symbol into different lines? I want to write expression \sum_{i=0}^n i with i\neq 4 under the summation symbol. How can I write this?
85
votes
2answers
273k views

Displaying the binomial coefficient symbol in math mode

The problem is caused by the symbol of binomial coefficient (symbol of Newton), often used in math: {N}\choose{k} In my document I have formula: $$ P(A) = \sum P(\{ (e_1,...,e_N) \}) = {N}\choose{...
85
votes
5answers
61k views

How to make \left, \right pairs of delimiter work over multiple lines?

I have a very long equation that must be separated into two lines, and it has several pairs of nesting \left \right delimiters. Unfortunately, it seems that they need to be on the same line in order ...
84
votes
2answers
24k views

What is the difference between \mathbin vs. \mathrel?

These seem to be very similar as they both separate two operands. When would one be used over the other? Is there any difference in the math spacing surrounding them? How would the spacing in these ...
83
votes
1answer
205k views

How do I add a line break in display math mode?

For instance, how do I add a break after the first line in \[ a + b = c // what should I add here? a = c - b \]