43

I think that there are two most sensible options: increase the first space and make it symmetric: $\langle\,,\rangle$ put \cdots in place of the arguments: $\langle\cdot,\cdot\rangle$ (this is what I prefer). Typeset versions: In the second one, if you don't like the space after the comma: $\langle\cdot{,}\cdot\rangle$


34

In the past few days, I have been caught by a sudden passion for virtual fonts, and I feel that, without mention of a solution that employs them, the discussion on this question is somewhat incomplete. After all, this is almost surely what Hagen von Eitzen had originally in mind (see other answers). Of course, the solutions that have already been presented ...


33

You mean \frac{d}{dx}\Bigr|_{\substack{x=1\\y=2}} from the package \usepackage{amsmath} ?


32

As has already been pointed out in the other answers, using l ("ell") immediately following \Bigg, \bigg, \Big, and \Big informs TeX that the subsequent "fence symbol" -- (, [, \{, etc -- is to be given math-class "Math Open" rather than "Math Ordinary". The consequences of this difference in the math class status of the fence symbol ("Open" vs "Ordinary) ...


32

I assume you're familiar with the most common use case for \left and \right, which is to provide automatic sizing of visual delimiters or "fences" -- round parentheses, square brackets, curly braces, angle-brackets, vertical bars, etc -- so that the "fences" may visually enclose the material they surround. Example: \[ \left( \frac{a}{b} \right) \] Well, ...


31

You should use \bigm| to make a relation symbol, so that the three consecutive bars are distinguishable from each other. If you want to make them slightly bigger, here's a way: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \newcommand{\divides}{\bigm|} \newcommand{\ndivides}{% \mathrel{\mkern.5mu % small adjustment % superimpose \nmid to \big| \...


26

\documentclass{amsart} \usepackage[charter]{mathdesign} \delimitershortfall=10pt \delimiterfactor=750 \begin{document} It would be nice if these were the same size: \[ \left|x\right| \quad \left|y\right| \] It would be even better if \[\left|x^{2^3}\right| \quad \text{ looked like } \quad \bigl| x^{2^3}\bigr|\] \end{document}


24

The end-of-line character is not available to be used in the main input stream, under the standard setting which is \endlinechar=`\^^M \catcode`\^^M=5 (see The ^^ notation in various engines for information about the ^^ notation). When TeX sees a character with category code 5, it immediately converts it either to a space or to a \par token if another ...


22

"As result of the newsgroup thread", which was mentioned in Mateus Araújo' answer, Heiko Oberdiek wrote the mleftright package. "It also adds some error checks (group nesting levels)." (both cited from Heiko's comment to Mateus Araújo' answer) \mleft and \mright from that package can be used instead of \left and \right and do not insert additional ...


22

The commands \bigl\vert, \bigm\vert, and \bigr\vert are semantically symmetric. Incidentally, the triplets of commands \bigl\lvert \bigl\vert \big\lvert and \bigr\rvert \bigr\vert \big\rvert, respectively, produce the same output. It's the command \mid that's a bit of an outlier, semantically speaking. As @egreg has noted in a comment, \mid is constructed as ...


19

The simplest way is \newcommand{\redub}{} % make sure it's definable \def\redub#1_#2{% \colorlet{currentcolor}{.}% \color{red}% \underbrace{\color{currentcolor}#1}_{\color{red}#2}% \color{currentcolor}% } using lower level features. You might want to add a check for a missing _: \makeatletter \newcommand{\redub}{} % make sure it's ...


19

Scott Pakin's Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List identifies the structure of extensible delimiters in section 8.2 Resizing symbols (p 100-102): All variable-sized delimiters are defined (by the corresponding .tfm file) in terms of up to five segments, as illustrated by Figure 1 on page 102. The top, middle, and bottom segments are of a fixed size. The top-...


18

OK, you really want to know how to create your own tfm file with new extensible symbols? Then here are some explanations. I only give some toy example, working with the standard Computer Modern fonts. Here's the output I can produce; I don't claim that it's nice or useful: Here's the LaTeX code: \documentclass[12pt]{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \...


18

This is a problem in how lmodern sets up the math extensions font, by saying \DeclareFontShape{OMX}{lmex}{m}{n}{% <->sfixed*lmex10% }{} which is utterly wrong, in my opinion, because it destroys the settings made by amsmath which would solve the problem. The fonts, unfortunately, do not provide for optical sizes different from 10pt, so you have ...


18

For historical reasons a fixed size is used for the scalable delimiters, even for cm that's not clearly a good idea (see exscale package), but here it's not good at all, if you use the font at its natural scaled size then.... \documentclass[12pt]{article} \DeclareFontFamily{OMX}{lmex}{} \DeclareFontShape{OMX}{lmex}{m}{n}{% <->lmex10% }{} \...


17

This is the expected behavior, as the braces are placed symmetrically with respect to the formula axis (running at the vertical center of the summation sign). Use \Bigl\{ and \Bigr\} or, if too small, \biggl\{ and \biggr\} instead of \left\{ and \right\}: \documentclass{article} \begin{document} \[ \mathcal{F}\Bigl\{\sum_{j}e^{-2i\pi\nu_j t}\Bigr\} \] \[ \...


17

It occured to me, yesterday, that there does exist (at least) one font which includes glyphs for building a truly extensible integral sign: it is the PostScript Symbol font (psyr), which has such glyphs in positions 243 (octal '363, hexadecimal "F3), 244 (octal '364, hexadecimal "F4) and 245 (octal '365, hexadecimal "F5). Thus an approach along these lines ...


17

Since \big is the minimum requested size anyway, it's better to use a simpler approach: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath,mleftright} \usepackage{xparse} \NewDocumentCommand{\evalat}{sO{\big}mm}{% \IfBooleanTF{#1} {\mleft. #3 \mright|_{#4}} {#3#2|_{#4}}% } \begin{document} \begin{align} & \evalat{f(x)}{x=0} \\ & \evalat[\big]{f(...


16

The package mathtools already provides the necessary features; you just have to add the possibility of using numbers instead of the commands \big and siblings. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{mathtools} \DeclarePairedDelimiterX{\innset}[2]{\lbrace}{\rbrace}{% #1\;\delimsize\vert\;#2} \newcommand{\set}[3][0]{% \ifcase#1\relax \innset{#2}{#3}\or ...


16

Here are some possible choices \documentclass{article} \usepackage{mleftright} \begin{document} \[ L = \sup \mleft\{\, \sum_{x \in F} a(x) \;\middle|\; F \subset X,\, |F| < \infty \,\mright\}, \] \[ L = \sup \biggl\{\, \sum_{x \in F} a(x) \mathrel{\bigg|} F \subset X,\, |F| < \infty \,\biggr\}, \] \[ L = \sup \biggl\{\, \sum_{x \in F} a(x) \mathrel{\...


16

The following example uses package zref to remember the size of the math formula in labels. Package mleftright is used to reduce the additional horizontal spacing by \left and \right. Inside a complex math block, the following macros can be used: \mzleft{<label>}{<left delimiter>}{<math formula>} \mzright{<label>}{<math formula&...


16

It's quite easy with LaTeX3 macros. \documentclass{article} \usepackage{xparse,amsmath} \ExplSyntaxOn \NewDocumentCommand{\matlabmatrix}{ O{b} m } { \strategy_matlabmatrix:nn { #1 } { #2 } } \seq_new:N \l_strategy_rows_seq \seq_new:N \l_strategy_a_row_seq \tl_new:N \l_strategy_matrix_tl \cs_new_protected:Npn \strategy_matlabmatrix:nn #1 #2 { \...


16

This is a problem that shows up also in different situations. Consider \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} \[ \sqrt{\sin x}\sqrt{\cos x} \] \end{document} gives which is horrible. If we correct the definitions performed in amsopn.sty in the following way, \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \protected\def\arccos{\...


16

\DeclarePairedDelimiter is a very specific command in the mathtools package for opening and closing delimiters (e.g. parentheses, brackets, braces) where you want the option to automatically resize them. For example, it allows you to replace \lfloor...\rfloor with \floor{...} and \left\lfloor...\right\rfloor with \floor*{...}. Other common examples are: \...


15

This is a version of \big that's a bit smaller at 10pt size, but scales with em and with \scriptsize. \documentclass{article} %\def\big#1{{\hbox{$\left#1\vbox to8.5\p@{}\right.\n@space$}}} %\def\bigl{\mathopen\big} %\def\bigr{\mathclose\big} \makeatletter \def\myl{\mathopen\mybig} \def\myr{\mathclose\mybig} \def\mybigx#1{\dimen@#1\relax \mathchoice {\vbox ...


15

Is this what you mean? If so, here are three possibilities: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{stackengine} \begin{document} \( \left. {\frac{\partial x}{\partial t}}% \right|_{% \stackunder[1pt]{$\scriptscriptstyle t=0$}{$\scriptscriptstyle t=1$}} \) ~~ \( \left. {\frac{\partial x}{\partial t}}% _{\stackunder[1pt]{}{}}% \right|_{% \stackon[1pt]{$\...


15

You cannot split \left...\right across alignment tabs. One solution is to use the \big-delimiters (which don't require pairwise usage): \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath}% http://ctan.org/pkg/amsmath \begin{document} \begin{align} a \bigl( b &= c \biggr) \\ d \Bigl( e &= f \Biggr) \end{align} \end{document} The above example is ...


14

OK, the short answer is in the comments; here is the looong one. Please note: This answer applies to the original TeX by Knuth, to eTeX, and to pdfTeX. I don’t know how character input in math mode and math fonts are managed in other typesetting engines, e.g., in XeTeX. Moreover, in principle the inputenc package could interfere in the processes ...


14

Just use \left\{ and \right\} for the braces as well: \documentclass{article} \usepackage{amsmath} \begin{document} Original equation: \begin{equation*} \pi(X) = \mathbf{N}_4 \Bigg\{ \left( \begin{matrix} 1 \\ 2 \\ 1 \\ 3 \end{matrix} \right), \left( \begin{matrix} 2 & 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 1 & 2 & 1 & 3 \\ 2 &...


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